On This Day
1277 – Treaty of Aberconwy brings to an end the first of the Welsh Wars.
The Treaty of Aberconwy was signed in 1277 by King Edward I of England and Llewelyn the Last of modern-day Wales, who had fought each other on and off for years over control of the Welsh countryside. The treaty granted peace between the two, but also essentially guaranteed that Welsh self-rule would end upon Llewelyn’s death and represented the completion of the first stage of the Conquest of Wales by Edward I.
Llewelyn, wanting to cement his links to royalty more forcefully, sought to marry Eleanor de Montfort, daughter of Simon de Montfort and King Edward’s cousin. They were married by proxy in 1275, but when Eleanor sailed from France to meet Llewelyn, Edward hired pirates to seize her ship; she was imprisoned at Windsor Castle.
Edward, who was newly acceded to the throne of England, viewed Llewelyn as a threat, and particularly disliked the idea of his marrying the daughter of de Montfort, who had been the biggest threat to his royal predecessor’s reign. Edward also summoned Llewelyn to appear before him on several occasions, which Llewelyn refused on the grounds that he was not safe at Edward’s court.
In 1276, Edward declared Llewelyn a rebel and gathered an enormous army to march against him. By the summer of 1277, Edward’s forces had reached the heart of Gwynedd. Edward’s men confiscated the harvest in Anglesey, which deprived Llewelyn and his men of food, forcing Llewelyn to surrender.
What resulted was the treaty of Aberconwy, which guaranteed peace in Gwynedd in return for several difficult concessions from Llewelyn, including confining his authority to lands west of the River Conwy, while lands east were granted to his brother Dafydd ap Gruffydd, with whom he had earlier fought for control of Wales. Llewelyn was not stripped of his recently proclaimed title, Prince of Wales — but most of the lesser Welsh rulers who had paid him fealty were no longer to recognize him as their lord. Once signed, Edward began building several fortresses along the approach to Gwynedd, at Aberystwyth, Builth, Flint and Rhuddlan. The Treaty was agreed 9th November 1277, ratified by Edward 10th November 1277.
In the years after the treaty, Llewelyn sought to consolidate what power he had left. He paid homage and tribute to Edward, who agreed to allow Llewelyn’s marriage to go forward. In 1278, Llewelyn and Eleanor de Montfort were married in Worcester Cathedral, with Edward present at the nuptials.
Born On This Day
1732 – Jeanne Julie Éléonore de Lespinasse, French businesswoman and author (d. 1776)
Jeanne Julie Éléonore de Lespinasse (9 November 1732 – 23 May 1776) was a French salon holder and letter writer. She held a prominent salon in Paris during the Enlightenment. She is best-known today, however, for her letters, first published in 1809, which offer compelling accounts of two tragic love affairs.
Julie-Jeanne-Éléonore de Lespinasse was born in Lyon, the illegitimate daughter of Julie-Claude-Hilaire d’Albon, who was the sole heir of an old family. Her mother, who was married to the Comte d’Albon, separated from her husband at the time of her birth, and the baby was baptized as the daughter of two fictitious persons, ‘Claude Lespinasse’ and his wife ‘Julie Navarre’. The mystery of who her father really was did not get cleared up until her first careful biographer, the Marquis de Ségur, established that she was the daughter of Gaspard de Vichy-Chamrond, whose sister, Marie Anne de Vichy-Chamrond, marquise du Deffand, ran a famous Paris salon.
Looked down on for her poverty and illegitimate birth, Mlle de Lespinasse had an unhappy childhood marked by neglect. She acquired a basic education at a convent, but she was largely self-educated, an impressive feat given that she was later able to hold her own among France’s top intellectuals. In 1754, Madame du Deffand, who recognized her niece’s extraordinary gifts, persuaded her to come to Paris as her companion.
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Watch “The Modern Warrior” Veteran’s Day Special on FOX News
5 Vets Walk Into a Bar…with a TV Camera.
THIS SUNDAY NIGHT!
I was in New York last week with Marcus Luttrell, Rob O’Neil, Dakota Meyer, and my good friend Pete Hegseth. We sat down at a fancy-pants restaurant, had a beer, and talked about what Veteran’s Day means to each of us. It was a really unique honor.
What’s cool is FOX News setup this entire event and the cameras were rolling. So you can join us at the table and hear the unvarnished conversation. “The Modern Warrior” special will air on Veteran’s Day, Sunday, November 11 at 8pm ET*. It was awesome and I’d love for you to see it!
*Check your local listings just in case, ya know? Shift happens.
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