On This Day
1695 – Zumbi, the last of the leaders of Quilombo dos Palmares in early Brazil, is executed by the forces of Portuguese bandeirante Domingos Jorge Velho – an event nowadays commemorated in Black Awareness Day.
Zumbi (1655 – November 20, 1695), also known as Zumbi dos Palmares (Portuguese pronunciation: [zũˈbi dus pɐwˈmaɾis]), was a Brazilian of Kongo/Angola origin and a quilombola leader, being one of the pioneers of resistance to slavery of Africans by the Portuguese in Brazil. He was also the last of the kings of the Quilombo dos Palmares, a settlement of Afro-Brazilian people who had liberated themselves from enslavement in that same settlement, he had also enslaved acrican and natives, in the present-day state of Alagoas, Brazil. Zumbi today is revered in Afro-Brazilian culture as a powerful symbol of resistance against the enslavement of Africans in the colony of Brazil. He was married to the less known but also great warrior Dandara.
Born On This Day
1855 – Josiah Royce, American philosopher (d. 1916)
Josiah Royce (/rɔɪs/; November 20, 1855 – September 14, 1916) was an American objective idealist philosopher and the founder of American idealism.
Royce, born in Grass Valley, California, on November 20, 1855, was the son of Josiah and Sarah Eleanor (Bayliss) Royce, whose families were recent English emigrants and who sought their fortune in the westward movement of the American pioneers in 1849. He received a B.A. from the University of California, Berkeley (which moved from Oakland to Berkeley during his matriculation) in 1875, where he later accepted an instructorship teaching English composition, literature, and rhetoric. While at the university, he studied with Joseph LeConte, Professor of Geology and Natural History and a prominent spokesperson for the compatibility between evolution and religion. In a memorial published shortly after LeConte’s death, Royce described the impact of LeConte’s teaching on his own development, writing: “the wonder thus aroused was, for me, the beginning of philosophy” (p. 328). After some time in Germany, where he studied with Hermann Lotze, Johns Hopkins University awarded him in 1878 one of its first four doctorates, in philosophy. At Johns Hopkins he taught a course on the history of German thought, which was “one of his chief interests” because he was able to give consideration to the philosophy of history. After four years at the University of California, Berkeley, he went to Harvard in 1882 as a sabbatical replacement for William James, who was Royce’s friend and philosophical antagonist. Royce’s position at Harvard was made permanent in 1884, and he remained there until his death on September 14, 1916.
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