1936 – Life magazine is reborn as a photo magazine and enjoys instant success.
Life was an American magazine that ran weekly from 1883 to 1936 as a humor magazine with limited circulation. Time owner Henry Luce bought the magazine in 1936, solely so that he could acquire the rights to its name, and launched a major weekly news magazine with a strong emphasis on photojournalism. Life was published weekly until 1972, as an intermittent “special” until 1978, and as a monthly from 1978 to 2000.
After 2000 Time Inc. continued to use the Life brand for special and commemorative issues. Life returned to regularly scheduled issues when it became a weekly newspaper supplement from 2004 to 2007. The website life.com, originally one of the channels on Time Inc.’s Pathfinder service, was for a time in the late 2000s managed as a joint venture with Getty Images under the name See Your World, LLC,. On January 30, 2012, the LIFE.com URL became a photo channel on Time.com.[clarification needed]
When Life was founded in 1883, it was developed as similar to the British magazine, Punch. It was published for 53 years as a general-interest light entertainment magazine, heavy on illustrations, jokes and social commentary. It featured some of the greatest writers, editors, illustrators and cartoonists of its era, including Charles Dana Gibson, Norman Rockwell and Jacob Hartman Jr. Gibson became the editor and owner of the magazine after John Ames Mitchell died in 1918. During its later years, the magazine offered brief capsule reviews (similar to those in The New Yorker) of plays and movies currently running in New York City, but with the innovative touch of a colored typographic bullet resembling a traffic light, appended to each review: green for a positive review, red for a negative one, and amber for mixed notices.
The Luce Life was the first all-photographic American news magazine, and it dominated the market for more than 40 years. The magazine sold more than 13.5 million copies a week at one point; it was so popular that President Harry S. Truman, Sir Winston Churchill, and General Douglas MacArthur all had their memoirs serialized in its pages. Luce purchased the rights to the name from the publishers of the first Life but sold its subscription list and features to another magazine; there was no editorial continuity between the two publications.
Perhaps one of the best-known pictures printed in the magazine was Alfred Eisenstaedt’s photograph of a nurse in a sailor’s arms, snapped on August 14, 1945, as they celebrated Victory over Japan Day in New York City. The magazine’s role in the history of photojournalism is considered its most important contribution to publishing. Life was wildly successful for two generations before its prestige was diminished by economics and changing tastes.
1915 – Anne Burns, British aeronautical engineer and glider pilot (d. 2001)
Anne Burns (23 November 1915 – 22 January 2001) was a British aeronautical engineer and glider pilot.
Anne Pellew was born in Haworth, Yorkshire. She attended The Abbey School, Reading, and then went to St Hugh’s College, Oxford, where, only the second woman to read Engineering Sciences at Oxford University, she was awarded the Edgell Shepee Scholarship and graduated with a First in 1936. She also won a hockey Blue and squash ‘Half Blue’.
She did research work under Professor Richard Southwell at the university’s engineering laboratory. Together they wrote one of the early theoretical papers on Rayleigh-Benard convection. At the outbreak of the Second World War she applied to join the Air Transport Auxiliary as a ferry pilot, but her engineering expertise precluded this and in 1940 she was employed by the Ministry of Supply, joining what became the Structures and Mechanical Department at the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE) at Farnborough, Hampshire, as a scientific assistant
Her early work concentrated on flutter problems and on the measurement of the loads imposed on aircraft structures during flight. Other wartime tasks included the development of windscreen wipers for bombers and the double windscreen enclosing a supply of warm air to improve visibility. During this time she made test flights in many types of military aircraft from Tiger Moths to Hawker Typhoons & Gloster Meteors.
In the late 1940s she was the first flight-test observer (FTO) in the UK to use strain gauges in an aircraft in flight. In 1953 she became a Principal Scientific Officer. During the investigation in 1954 into the crashes of the early de Havilland Comet jet airliners, she made many flights as an FTO in unpressurised Comets, sometimes up to 40,000 feet. It was known that the aircraft had broken up in flight while flying above 25,000 ft. In her own words “We flew about waiting for the windows to blow out.” The following year Burns was awarded the Queen’s Commendation in recognition of her bravery and her contribution to the investigation. In 1958 she was also awarded the R.P. Alston Medal by the Royal Aeronautical Society for this work.
She became an expert on clear-air turbulence due to “wind-shear”, caused by different air movement (wind) at altitudes close to each other, such as at the edge of a high-level “jet stream”. Some of her research into turbulent air was conducted in a Fournier RF-4. In 1963 she was awarded a second Queen’s Commendation, this time for her flights in an English Electric Canberra carrying out low- and high-level-gust research. Some of the low level flights were carried out in high temperatures in Libya from the RAF Stations at El Adem near Tobruk and RAF Idris near Tripoli.
The Royal Aeronautical Society awarded her its Silver Medal for Aeronautics in 1966, and in 1968, when she was working on clear-air turbulence, flying as an observer in several countries, she was presented with the Whitney Straight Award for her services to aeronautical research and flying. She retired from the RAE in 1976 after accumulating 1,500 hours of flight time as an observer. She met her husband Denis Burns at the RAE and they married in 1947.
Although she had flown military assault gliders during the war, Anne Burns took up gliding as a sport in 1954 winning awards and establishing both national and international records. On her first cross-country flight, from Lasham, Hampshire in an Eon Olympia she reached RAF Ternhill, Shropshire in 4hr 55min breaking the British women’s distance record. In December 1956, she flew a Slingsby Skylark 3b following a bungee launch to 11,890 feet (3,620 m) setting new women’s British national and UK absolute altitude and gain-of-height records. Again flying a Skylark 3, she became the first woman to cross the English Channel in a glider in 1957.
By 1961 she held 10 of the 11 UK women’s records including the current altitude record of 10,550 metres (34,610 ft). In breaking the altitude record in South Africa she had entered the base of a cumulonimbus cloud at about 6,000 ft above ground. On the way up, there were electrical discharges to the pilot’s knees from various metal parts of the aircraft. At about 34,000 ft there was a nearby major strike which discharged itself violently through the left wing. A small panel from the wing was blown away. Anne was temporarily confused by this shock but, coming-to more or less instantaneously, she decided it was time to get out of the cloud and descend.
In 1962, Denis and Anne Burns were jointly awarded the Royal Aero Club’s Britannia Trophy for their gliding achievements. In 1963 she claimed the women’s world record for speed over a 500 km triangular course of 103.33 km/h. In 1966 she became British Gliding Champion, the first woman to hold the title. She received many other awards for gliding achievements including the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale Lilienthal Gliding Medal in 1966.
In 1977 her glider was hit by a bird and damaged. She bailed out but became tangled in the shrouds, nevertheless escaping with only an injured ankle by landing in a sycamore tree. She thus became the first woman since the 1930s to become a member of Irvin’s Caterpillar Club and aged 62, she was also the oldest person ever to join this club. She then gave up gliding and took up fly fishing and snooker, again winning awards in both sports.
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