On This Day
829 – Theophilos succeeds his father Michael II as Byzantine Emperor.
Theophilos (Greek: Θεόφιλος; sometimes Latinized or Anglicized as Theophilus or Theophilo; c. 812 – 20 January 842) was the Byzantine Emperor from 829 until his death in 842. He was the second emperor of the Amorian dynasty and the last emperor to support iconoclasm. Theophilos personally led the armies in his long war against the Arabs, beginning in 831.
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52 BC – Gallic Wars: Vercingetorix, leader of the Gauls, surrenders to the Romans under Julius Caesar, ending the siege and battle of Alesia.
The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia (September 52 BC) was a military engagement in the Gallic Wars around the Gallic oppidum (fortified settlement) of Alesia in modern France, a major centre of the Mandubii tribe. It was fought by the Roman army of Julius Caesar against a confederation of Gallic tribes united under the leadership of Vercingetorix of the Arverni. It was the last major engagement between Gauls and Romans, and is considered one of Caesar’s greatest military achievements and a classic example of siege warfare and investment; the Roman army built dual lines of fortifications – an inner wall to keep the besieged Gauls in, and an outer wall to keep the Gallic relief force out. The Battle of Alesia marked the end of Gallic independence in the modern day territory of France and Belgium.
The battle site was probably atop Mont Auxois, above modern Alise-Sainte-Reine in France, but this location, some have argued, does not fit Caesar’s description of the battle. A number of alternatives have been proposed over time, among which only Chaux-des-Crotenay (in Jura in modern France) remains a challenger today.
The event is described by several contemporary authors, including Caesar himself in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico. After the Roman victory, Gaul (very roughly modern France) was subdued, although Gaul would not become a Roman province until 27 BC. The Roman Senate granted Caesar a thanksgiving of 20 days for his victory in the Gallic War.
Born On This Day
1452 – Richard III of England (d. 1485)
Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 26 June 1483 until his death in 1485. He was the last king of the House of York and the last of the Plantagenet dynasty. His defeat and death at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the last decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, marked the end of the Middle Ages in England.
Richard was created Duke of Gloucester in 1461 after the accession of his brother King Edward IV. In 1472, he married Anne Neville, daughter of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick. He governed northern England during Edward’s reign, and played a role in the invasion of Scotland in 1482. When Edward IV died in April 1483, Richard was named Lord Protector of the realm for Edward’s eldest son and successor, the 12-year-old Edward V. Arrangements were made for Edward V’s coronation on 22 June 1483. Before the king could be crowned, the marriage of his parents was declared bigamous and therefore invalid. Now officially illegitimate, their children were barred from inheriting the throne. On 25 June, an assembly of lords and commoners endorsed a declaration to this effect, and proclaimed Richard as the rightful king. He was crowned on 6 July 1483. Edward and his younger brother Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York, called the “Princes in the Tower”, were not seen in public after August, and accusations circulated that they had been murdered on King Richard’s orders, after the Tudor dynasty established their rule a few years later.
There were two major rebellions against Richard during his reign. In October 1483, an unsuccessful revolt was led by staunch allies of Edward IV and Richard’s former ally, Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. Then, in August 1485, Henry Tudor and his uncle, Jasper Tudor, landed in southern Wales with a contingent of French troops, and marched through Pembrokeshire, recruiting soldiers. Henry’s forces defeated Richard’s army near the Leicestershire town of Market Bosworth. Richard was slain, making him the last English king to die in battle. Henry Tudor then ascended the throne as Henry VII.
Richard’s corpse was taken to the nearby town of Leicester and buried without ceremony. His original tomb monument is believed to have been removed during the English Reformation, and his remains were wrongly thought to have been thrown into the River Soar. In 2012, an archaeological excavation was commissioned by the Richard III Society on the site previously occupied by Grey Friars Priory. The University of Leicester identified the skeleton found in the excavation as that of Richard III as a result of radiocarbon dating, comparison with contemporary reports of his appearance, identification of trauma sustained at the Battle of Bosworth and comparison of his mitochondrial DNA with that of two matrilineal descendants of his sister Anne. He was reburied in Leicester Cathedral on 26 March 2015.
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85 BC – Gaius Cassius Longinus, Roman politician (d. 42 BC)
Gaius Cassius Longinus (c. 86 BC – 3 October 42 BC), often referred to as simply Cassius, was a Roman senator and general best known as a leading instigator of the plot to assassinate Julius Caesar on 15 March 44 BC. He was the brother-in-law of Brutus, another leader of the conspiracy. He commanded troops with Brutus during the Battle of Philippi against the combined forces of Mark Antony and Octavian, Caesar’s former supporters, and committed suicide after being defeated by Mark Antony.
Cassius was elected as Tribune of the plebs in 49 BC. He opposed Caesar, and eventually he commanded a fleet against him during Caesar’s Civil War: after Caesar defeated Pompey in the Battle of Pharsalus, Caesar overtook Cassius and forced him to surrender. After Caesar’s death, Cassius fled to the East, where he amassed an army of twelve legions. He was supported and made Governor by the Senate. Later he and Brutus marched west against the allies of the Second Triumvirate.
He followed the teachings of the philosopher Epicurus, although scholars debate whether or not these beliefs affected his political life. Cassius is a main character in William Shakespeare’s play Julius Caesar that depicts the assassination of Caesar and its aftermath. He is also shown in the lowest circle of Hell in Dante’s Inferno as punishment for betraying and killing Caesar.
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NASA: Astronomy Picture of the Day
By Nitish Pahwa, Slate: Coolio Was More Than “Gangsta’s Paradise” The hip-hop classic was both 1995’s biggest song and its most acclaimed, but the rapper scored hits both before and after.
Artis Leon Ivey Jr. (August 1, 1963 – September 28, 2022), known professionally as Coolio, was an American rapper. First rising to fame as a member of the gangsta rap group WC and the Maad Circle, Coolio achieved mainstream success as a solo artist in the mid-to-late 1990s with his albums It Takes a Thief (1994), Gangsta’s Paradise (1995), and My Soul (1997).
He is best known for his 1995 Grammy Award-winning hit single “Gangsta’s Paradise”, as well as other singles “Fantastic Voyage” (1994), “1, 2, 3, 4 (Sumpin’ New)” (1996), and “C U When U Get There” (1997).
From 1996 on, Coolio released albums independently, and provided the opening track “Aw, Here It Goes!” for the 1996 Nickelodeon television series Kenan & Kel. He created the web series Cookin’ with Coolio and released a cookbook.
MessyNessy 13 Things I Found on the Internet Today (Vol. DCXVIII): Airbnb Recreated the “Hocus Pocus” cottage for Halloween; A guy who built his own coffin replica gravestone; The Medieval Wound Man: The Poor Soul Who Illustrated the Injuries a Person Might Receive Through War, Accident or Disease; Cecil B. DeMille’s Madame Satan (1930); This movie looks incredible; There are currently 11 Finnish islands for sale, starting from 113,000 euro; Before his death at 31, Keith Haring wrote this letter of encouragement to an aspiring artist; Mr Doodle doodles his house and more ->
By Molly Fitzpatrick, Vulture: The 21 Best Witch Movies of All Time
By Paula Mejia, Gastro Obscura: The Dinner Party That Served Up 50,000-Year-Old Bison Stew When life gives you frozen bison, make dinner.
By Michele Hermann, Thrillist: Find Your Way Through the Biggest, Baddest Corn Mazes in the U.S. Late nights, alcohol, and hiking shoes required.
By Grace Ebert, Colossal: Explosive Photos by Ray Collins Capture the Ocean’s Mercurial Nature As It Erupts in Extravagant Bursts
FOX 11: ‘One of the best days of my life’: Stranger takes 100-year-old veteran to Disneyland
Garza, with a big social media following, is open and honest about getting paid, brand and sponsorship deals through his videos, but says it comes from a genuine place of love and passion for helping others…after he was homeless for a couple of years living on Skid Row.
“I think it was the pain I went through every day when I would sleep on concrete, shower in public restrooms for years. I just told myself I was going to use this energy and harness it for good someday. I never knew how I was going to be able to make money someday to help people, but I always told myself that energy I would harness it for good and it ended up working.”
By Suchitra B., Upwothy News: Captain invites water boy with Down syndrome to join team in victory lap: ‘Moment of my life’ ‘We share a very special friendship, and I consider him like family. He has my back and I have his,’ the captain said.
Pitchfo0rk: The 250 Best Songs of the 1990s The tracks that defined the ’90s, including Björk, Biggie, Mariah, Bikini Kill, Aaliyah, 2Pac, and many, many more.
Pitchfork: The 150 Best Albums of the 1990s From Lauryn Hill to Radiohead, My Bloody Valentine to Janet Jackson, Nirvana to Wu-Tang Clan, and so many more, these are the albums that changed music forever.
Discover the best graduation speeches One and only place to find a curated list of best commencement speeches
By Bob Miller, Food News: McDonald’s Is Launching A New Cactus Plant Flea Market Box For Adults On October 3, 2022
By Gina Martinez, CBS News: World Remains of SS Mesaba, ship that sent iceberg warning to Titanic, found lying in the Irish Sea
By June Xie, Delish: This Brioche Bread Is For Butter Lovers Only Soft, pillowy, buttery clouds.
By Lara Rege, Delish: Bacon-Wrapped Cauliflower Recipe It’s sure to convert some cauliflower-haters.
By John Kennedy, Popular Science: 11 Soup Recipes Perfect for Freezing and Hoarding These are great for when you’re tired of canned food.
Just the Recipe: Paste the URL to any recipe, click submit, and it’ll return literally JUST the recipe- no ads, no life story of the writer, no nothing EXCEPT the recipe.
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