FYI October 09, 2018

On This Day

1238 – James I of Aragon conquers Valencia and founds the Kingdom of Valencia.
James I the Conqueror (Catalan: Jaume el Conqueridor, Aragonese: Chaime lo Conqueridor, Occitan: Jacme lo Conquistaire, Spanish: Jaime el Conquistador; 2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276; King of Majorca from 1231 to 1276; and Valencia from 1238 to 1276. His long reign—the longest of any Iberian monarch—saw the expansion of the House of Aragon and House of Barcelona in three directions: Languedoc to the north, the Balearic Islands to the southeast, and Valencia to the south. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the county of Barcelona from nominal French suzerainty and integrated it into his crown. He renounced northward expansion and taking back the once Catalan territories in Occitania and vassal counties loyal to the County of Barcelona, lands that were lost by his father Peter II of Aragon in the Battle of Muret during the Albigensian Crusade and annexed by the Kingdom of France, and then decided to turn south. His great part in the Reconquista was similar in Mediterranean Spain to that of his contemporary Ferdinand III of Castile in Andalusia. One of the main reasons for this formal renunciation of most of the once Catalan territories in Languedoc and Occitania and any expansion into them is the fact that he was raised by the Knights Templar crusaders, who had defeated his father fighting for the Pope alongside the French, so it was effectively forbidden for him to try to maintain the traditional influence of the Count of Barcelona that previously existed in Occitania and Languedoc.

As a legislator and organiser, he occupies a high place among the European kings. James compiled the Llibre del Consolat de Mar,[1] which governed maritime trade and helped establish Aragonese supremacy in the western Mediterranean. He was an important figure in the development of the Catalan language, sponsoring Catalan literature and writing a quasi-autobiographical chronicle of his reign: the Llibre dels fets.


Born On This Day

1900 – Joseph Friedman, American inventor, invented the bendy straw (d. 1982)
Joseph B. Friedman (October 9, 1900 in Cleveland, Ohio – June 21, 1982) was an independent American inventor with a broad range of interests and ideas. Friedman was a first generation American and the fifth of eight children of Jacob David Friedman and Antoinette Grauer Friedman.

Early years

By the age of fourteen, had conceptualized his first invention, the lighted pencil, which he deemed the “pencilite,” and was attempting to market his idea. Over the course of his inventing career, he would experiment with ideas ranging from writing implements to engine improvements, and household products to sound and optic experiments. He was issued nine U.S. patents and held patents in Great Britain, Australia and Canada. His first patent was issued for improvements to the fountain pen on April 18, 1922.[1] This was also the first invention that he successfully sold, to the Sheaffer Pen Company in the mid-1930s.

In the 1920s, Friedman began his education in real estate and optometry. He would use both of these careers at different points in his life to supplement his income while improving his invention concepts. Although he was working as a realtor in San Francisco, California,[2] the 1930s proved to be his most prolific patenting period, with six of his nine U.S. patents being issued then. One of these patents would prove to be his most successful invention – the flexible drinking straw.[3]

Invention of the flexible straw

While sitting in his younger brother Albert’s fountain parlor, the Varsity Sweet Shop in San Francisco (200 19th Avenue[4]), Friedman observed his young daughter Judith at the counter, struggling to drink out of a straight straw. He took a paper straight straw, inserted a screw and using dental floss, he wrapped the paper into the screw threads, creating corrugations. After removing the screw, the altered paper straw would bend conveniently over the edge of the glass, allowing small children to better reach their beverages. U.S. patent #2,094,268 was issued for this new invention under the title Drinking Tube, on September 28, 1937. Friedman would later file and be issued two additional U.S. patents and three foreign patents in the 1950s relating to its formation and construction. Friedman attempted to sell his straw patent to several existing straw manufacturers beginning in 1937 without success, so after completing his straw machine, he began to produce the straw himself.[5] Friedman’s younger English relative, Michael Fabricant MP, would later write that his great uncle’s invention was “arguably the most significant technological achievement of the twentieth century”.[6]

The Flexible Straw Corporation
The Flexible Straw Corporation was incorporated on April 24, 1939 in California. However, World War II interrupted Friedman’s efforts to construct his straw manufacturing machine. During the war, he managed the optometry practice of Arthur Euler, O.D., in Capwells’ Department Store in Oakland, California, and continued to sell real estate and insurance to support his growing family. Friedman obtained financial backing for his flexible straw machine from two of his brothers-in-law, Harry Zavin and David Light, as well as from Bert Klein, a family associate. With their financial help, and the business advice of his sister Betty, Friedman completed the first flexible straw manufacturing machine in the late 1940s. Although his original concept had come from the observation of his daughter, the flexible straw was initially marketed to hospitals, with the first sale made in 1947.[7][8] It is now cited as an early example of Design for All.[9]

Role of Betty Friedman

Betty Friedman played a crucial role in the development of the Flexible Straw Corporation. While still living in Cleveland and working at the Tarbonis Company, she corresponded regularly with her brother and directed all of the sales and distribution of the straw. In 1950 Friedman moved his family and company to Santa Monica, California. Now doing business as the Flex-Straw Co., sales continued to increase and the marketing direction expanded to focus more strongly on the home and child markets.[10] Betty Friedman moved west in 1954 to assume her formal leadership role in the corporation. Additional partners and investors were added over time, including Art Shapiro, who was initially solicited as a potential buyer of the patent. On June 20, 1969, the Flexible Straw Corporation sold its United States and foreign patents, United States and Canadian trademarks, and licensing agreements to the Maryland Cup Corporation. The Flexible Straw Corporation dissolved on August 19, 1969.[11]

On his death in 1982, Friedman was survived by his wife of over 50 years, Marjorie Lewis Friedman, his four children, Judith, Linda, Pamela and Robert, and nine grandchildren (John, Phil, Laurie (Laurel), Matt, Doug, Steve, Michael, Elizabeth and Johanna. And Great grandchildren, Rachel, Jamie, Chloe, Owen, Gilad, Erin, Sophia, Abby, Ruby, Maslin, Lucius, Pace, Emory, Avalyn, Zoe, Samantha, and…. Notably, Doug Leeds, CEO of IAC Publishing and former CEO of and John Reiss, author of Not By Design: Retiring Darwin’s Watchmaker.




By jdhandy: Farming in the rain: Sitka, Alaska
By Heather Chapman: How high-speed internet came to a remote area of Tennessee
By Heather Chapman: Hemp still faces regulatory hurdles if Farm Bill legalizes it
But CBD is at the center of a regulatory tangle: “The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has maintained that CBD oil cannot be marketed as a dietary supplement, and has been going after companies for making outlandish health claims,” Quinton reports. “Laws and regulations that define the hemp extract, who can use it and who can sell it, differ from state to state.” The Farm Bill would classify CBD as an agricultural product, so states may need to tweak their laws to conform.
By Moneyish: Moneyish wins a Front Page Award from the Newswomen’s Club of New York
By Xinmei Shen: How China’s biggest social network fights fake news WeChat posts the top rumors every month… so it can debunk them
James Poniewozik: ‏ Big house style news! As of this week, the NYT is no longer using courtesy titles–Mr, Ms., &c–in TV, music, movies and other pop-culture coverage.
Gastro Obscura: A Living, Sprouting Seed Bank While most seed vaults keep their specimens frozen and tucked away, a more dynamic approach to preserving crop diversity is taking root in Ethiopia., Tiny Pizza Huts, Filled With Books Outside of a Wyoming Pizza Hut, you might find a much smaller Pizza Hut serving up free books and magazines to-go and more ->
By Elizabeth Pennisi: The bird voice box is one of a kind in the animal kingdom
The Passive Voice: 110 Type Ornaments to Use in Your Book (Plus a Free Download), Why I Left My Big Fancy Tech Job and Wrote a Book and more->
By B&N Editors: A Conversation with Carl Hiaasen, Author of Squirm, an October Kids’ Book Hangout Selection
Open Culture Josh Jones: You’re Only As Old As You Feel: Harvard Psychologist Ellen Langer Shows How Mental Attitude Can Potentially Reverse the Effects of Aging

State of Newspapers: What happens when conglomerates closed down investigative journalism in Montana
Atlas Obscura: The great French mustache strike of 1907, Tag Along With Insects It’s not easy fixing tracking devices onto insects—just ask the scientists who are trying anyway, and more ->
Colossal: The Art of Japanese Funeral Floral Arrangements Tt the farewell ceremony for the late actress Kirin Kiki, a large display of white flowers, designed to look like a wave, greeted the constant flow of family members, fans and celebrities that had come to pay their respects. The white wave of flowers was comprised of roughly 1200 chrysanthemums, orchids, and gypsophila and more ->






By Hometalk Highlights: 30 Essential Hacks For Cleaning Around Your Home
WARNING: These projects might make you feel a little nauseated.
By seamster: 13 Cringe-Inducing Halloween Projects







Widget not in any sidebars


Widget not in any sidebars


Widget not in any sidebars