On This Day
1456 – The University of Greifswald is established as the second oldest university in northern Europe.
The University of Greifswald (German pronunciation: [ˈɡʁaɪfsvalt]; German: Universität Greifswald), formerly also known as “Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University of Greifswald“, is a public research university located in Greifswald, Germany, in the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.
Founded in 1456 (teaching existed since 1436), it is one of the oldest universities in Europe, with generations of notable alumni and staff having studied or worked in Greifswald. As the fourth oldest university in present Germany, it was temporarily also the oldest university of the Kingdoms of Sweden (1648–1815) and Prussia (1815–1945), respectively. Approximately two-thirds of the 10,179 students are from outside the state, including foreign students from 90 countries all over the world. Due to the small-town atmosphere, the pronounced architectural presence of the alma mater across town, and the young, academic flair in the streets, Greifswald is often described as a “university with a town built around it” rather than a town with a university. Being a vast research community, the university aims at expanding its academic connections globally.
33 – Heartbroken by the deaths of her sons Nero and Drusus, and banished to the island of Pandateria by Tiberius, Agrippina the Elder dies of self-inflicted starvation.
Agrippina “the Elder” (also, in Latin, Agrippina Germanici, “Germanicus’s Agrippina”; c. 14 BC – AD 33) was a prominent member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. She was the daughter of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (a close supporter of the first Roman emperor, Augustus) and Augustus’ daughter, Julia the Elder. Her brothers Lucius and Gaius Caesar were the adoptive sons of Augustus, and were his heirs until their deaths in AD 2 and 4, respectively. Following their deaths, her second cousin Germanicus was made the adoptive son of Tiberius, Augustus’ stepson, as part of Augustus’ succession scheme in the adoptions of AD 4 (in which Tiberius was adopted by Augustus). As a result of the adoption, Agrippina was wed to Germanicus in order to bring him closer to the Julian family.
Agrippina the Elder is known to have traveled with Germanicus throughout his career, taking her children wherever they went. In AD 14, Germanicus was deployed in Gaul as a governor and general, and, while there, the late Augustus sent her son Gaius to stay with her. Agrippina liked to dress him in a little soldiers’ outfit (complete with boots) for which Gaius earned the nickname “Caligula” (“little soldier’s boots”). After three years in Gaul, they returned to Rome, and her husband was awarded a triumph on 26 May AD 17 to commemorate his victories. The following year, Germanicus was sent to govern over the eastern provinces. While Germanicus was active in his administration, the governor of Syria Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso began feuding with him. During the feud, her husband died of illness on 10 October AD 19.
Germanicus was cremated in Antioch, Turkey, and she transported his ashes to Rome where they were interred at the Mausoleum of Augustus. Agrippina was vocal in claims of her husband being murdered in order to promote Tiberius’ son, Drusus Julius Caesar, (“Drusus the Younger”) as heir. Following the model of her stepgrandmother Livia, she spent the time following Germanicus’ death supporting the cause of her sons Nero and Drusus Caesar. This put her and her sons at odds with the powerful Praetorian prefect Lucius Aelius Sejanus who would begin eliminating their supporters with accusations of treason and sexual misconduct in AD 26. Her family’s rivalry with Sejanus would culminate with her and Nero’s exile in AD 29. Nero was exiled to Pontia and she was exiled to the island of Pandateria, where she would remain until her death by starvation in AD 33.
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Born On This Day
503 – Lý Nam Đế, first emperor of Vietnam (d. 548)
Lý Nam Đế (chữ Hán: 李南帝, c. 503 – 13 April 548), personal name Lý Bôn (李賁), was the founder of the Early Lý dynasty of Vietnam, ruling from 544 to 548.
Lý Bôn (李賁, sometimes read as Lý Bí) was a local aristocrat whose far distant ancestors were Chinese refugees who fled Wang Mang’s seizure of power during the interregnum between the Western and Eastern Han dynasties five centuries earlier. He was a regional magistrate of Giao Châu (交州, Chinese: Jiaozhou), an area of northern Vietnam roughly corresponding to the area of modern Hanoi. The Nan Qi shu (Book of Southern Qi) and Chen shu (Book of Chen) assert that Lý Bôn was part of the localized Sinitic-speaking ruling elite of the Red River Delta who wished to establish his own dynasty. His kinsmen Lý Phật Tử’s identity appears to be more ambiguous, sometimes was referred in Chinese texts as a “Lǐ man of Jiaozhou” (Jiaozhou lǐ rén) and “great leader of Jiaozhou” (Jiaozhou jushuai). Catherine Churchman (2016) suggests that perhaps due to massive influences of indigenous preexisting Non-Chinese Li Lao drum culture (c. 200–750 AD) that stretching all the way from the Pearl to the Red River in Southern China and Northern Vietnam, Sinitic immigrants from the north and people with Sinitic ancestry in the areas had gradually accustomed themselves with local culture.
During this time China was experiencing constant civil war. Lý Bí became increasingly frustrated with the corruption in the government and hostility toward the local population. His friend Pham Tu, subsequently helped him train a small army. Subsequently, Lý Bí resigned his post and revolted in 541 against the Liang who ruled Jiaozhou (Northern Vietnam) at the time. He gathered the local nobility and tribes within the Red River Valley, gathered together an army and navy, and won a decisive battle in Hepu in summer 543, expelling the Liang from Northern Vietnam region. The following year in February 544, Lý Bí was declared emperor by the people with the intention of demonstrating equality in status to China’s own emperors. He named the new kingdom “Vạn Xuân” (萬春, literally “Eternal Spring”). His armies also repelled attacks from Champa in the south who had allied with the Liang at the time.
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1127 – Emperor Go-Shirakawa of Japan (d. 1192)
Emperor Go-Shirakawa (後白河天皇, Go-Shirakawa-tennō, October 18, 1127 – April 26, 1192) was the 77th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His de jure reign spanned the years from 1155 through 1158, though arguably he effectively maintained imperial power for almost thirty-seven years through the insei system – scholars differ as to whether his rule can be truly considered part of the insei system, given that the Hōgen Rebellion undermined the imperial position. However, it is broadly acknowledged that by politically outmaneuvering his opponents, he attained greater influence and power than the diminished authority of the emperor’s position during this period would otherwise allow.
Posthumously, this 12th-century sovereign was named after the 11th-century Emperor Shirakawa. Go- (後), translates literally as “later”; and thus, he is sometimes called the “Later Emperor Shirakawa”, or in some older sources, may be identified as “Shirakawa, the second” or as “Shirakawa II”.
Unusually, the years of Go-Shirakawa’s reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō; Kyūju (1154–1156) and Hōgen (1156–1159).
He was de facto the last true emperor, before the shogun became the actual head of the country from 1192, after his death, to 1868.
NASA: Astronomy Picture of the Day
By Allie Volpe, Vox.com: How to come up with a unique Halloween costume without spending a ton of money Tap your creativity (and closet) for the best Halloween costume.
By Jacqueline Weiss, Eating Well: Why Deli Sandwiches Taste Better Than Yours
What’s your favorite sandwich? A club sandwich? Maybe a Cuban sandwich? What about a chicken sandwich or even a breakfast sandwich? No matter your preference, you’ve probably been disappointed by your own sandwiches versus the ones you order at a deli. Here’s why, plus tips on how to make a better tasting sandwich at home (Psst, have someone else make it for you, seriously.)
By Zoe Sottile, CNN: The queen of rock and roll is now a Barbie
By Matthew Cantor, The Guardian: ‘Made by white labor’: the vintage Levi’s that point to America’s dark past
Old Maps Online
One Eyeland: WORLD’S TOP 10 STREET PHOTOGRAPHERS 2022
By Jeff Sommers, Lifehacker: You Don’t Even Realize These Products Have Lifetime Warranties These true lifetime warranties allow you to replace or repair your stuff if it ever breaks or wears out.
STET! A game for lanuage lovers.
Miss Moss: The Ice-Cream Project
By Frontiers, Phys.Org: Scientists peel back ancient layers of banana DNA to reveal ‘mystery ancestors’
Dani Shapiro: Family Secrets
Family Secrets. We all have them. And while the discovery of family secrets can initially be terrifying or traumatic, often these discoveries have the power to liberate, heal, and even uplift us. Join Dani Shapiro, bestselling author of the memoir Inheritance, and her guests as they explore astonishing family secrets and uncover the extraordinary lessons the truth can teach us.
By Kalen, Twitter: Artist Michael Heizer has been working on this insanely massive sculpture in the Nevada desert for more than 50 years. He just finished it.
By Makenzie Gore, Delish: Bacon & Spinach Stuffed Chicken Is Calling Your Name
By Rebecca Firkster, Bon Appétit: Beef Is Expensive—This Trick Makes Burgers Cheaper
By Beverly Harvey, Bon Appétit: Black-Bottom Peanut Butter Pie
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