On This Day
42 BC – Liberators’ civil war: Second Battle of Philippi: Mark Antony and Octavian decisively defeat Brutus’s army. Brutus commits suicide.
The Liberators’ civil war was started by the Second Triumvirate to avenge Julius Caesar’s murder. The war was fought by the forces of Mark Antony and Octavian (the Second Triumvirate members) against the forces of Caesar’s assassins Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus in 42 BC.
After the murder of Caesar, Brutus and Cassius (the two main conspirators, also known as the Liberatores) had left Italy and taken control of all Eastern provinces (from Greece and Macedonia to Syria) and of the allied Eastern kingdoms. In Rome the three main Caesarian leaders (Antony, Octavian and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus), who controlled almost all the Roman army in the west, had crushed the opposition of the senate and established the second triumvirate. One of their first tasks was to destroy the Liberators’ forces, not only to get full control of the Roman world, but also to avenge Caesar’s death.
The triumvirs decided to leave Lepidus in Italy, while the two main partners of the triumvirate (Antony and Octavian) moved to Northern Greece with their best troops (a total of 28 legions). In 42 BC Gaius Norbanus Flaccus and Decidius Saxa, were sent by the triumvirs with an eight legion strong advance guard into Macedonia against the murderers of Julius Caesar. In the neighborhood of Philippi, Norbanus and Saxa met the combined advancing troops of Cassius and Brutus. As they were outnumbered, Norbanus and Saxa occupied a position near Philippi which prevented the republicans from advancing any further. By a ruse, Brutus and Cassius managed to make Norbanus leave this position, but Norbanus discovered the ruse in time to recover the dominating position. When Brutus and Cassius managed to outflank them, Norbanus and Saxa retreated toward Amphipolis. When Marc Antony and the bulk of the triumvir’s troops arrived (minus Octavian, who was delayed at Dyrrachium because of ill health), they found Amphipolis well guarded and Norbanus was left in command of the town.
Born On This Day
1865 – Neltje Blanchan, American historian and author (d. 1918)
Neltje Blanchan De Graff Doubleday (October 23, 1865 – February 21, 1918) was a United States scientific historian and nature writer who published several books on wildflowers and birds under the pen name Neltje Blanchan. Her work is known for its synthesis of scientific interest with poetic phrasing.
Early life and education
Neltje Blanchan De Graff was born in Chicago to Liverius De Graff, a proprietor of a men’s clothing store, and his wife Alice Fair. She was educated at St. John’s Preparatory School in New York City and The Masters School in Dobbs Ferry, New York.
Marriage and family
Neltje married Frank Nelson Doubleday in Plainfield, New Jersey on June 9, 1886. They had two sons and one daughter: Felix Doty (adopted), Nelson (1889–1949) and Dorothy. They had homes in both New York City and Oyster Bay.
Neltje Doubleday published eleven books under her pen name of Neltje Blanchan. Her works on wildflowers and birds were notable for their combination of scientific facts with poetic expression.
Neltje Doubleday entertained regularly and participated in philanthropic work for the American Red Cross.
In 1917 she visited the Philippines and China on special assignment as a commissioner for the Red Cross. She died suddenly in Canton, China on February 21, 1918 at age 52.
Legacy and honors
Some of her papers (1914–1918) are held in the Frank N. Doubleday and Nelson Doubleday Collection at the Princeton University Library.
The Wyoming Arts Council established the Neltje Blanchan Literary Award (now called the Blanchan/Doubleday Writing Award), which is given annually to “a writer whose work, in any genre, is inspired by nature.” The award was funded in Blanchan’s memory by her granddaughter, Neltje Doubleday Kings, an abstract artist who served on the board of the Council from 1985 to 1988. In 2010 Neltje Kings made an estate gift to the University of Wyoming, including her land, ranch and studio buildings, art collections, which is the largest in the history of the university. When realized, it will become the UW Neltje Center for the Visual and Literary Arts.
Nellie’s grandson Nelson Doubleday Jr. was president of the Doubleday publishing company from 1978–1986, when he sold it to the Bertelsmann group from Germany. He purchased the New York Mets in 1986 and was chairman of its board that year when it won the World Series title. In 2002 he sold his half share in the team.
The Piegan Indians (1892)
Bird Neighbors (1897)
Birds that Hunt and Are Hunted (pdf). New York: Doubleday & McClure Co. 1898. p. 359.
Nature’s Garden (1900), republished as Wild Flowers: An Aid to Knowledge of our Wild Flowers and their Insect Visitors (1901)
How to Attract the Birds (1902)
“What the Basket Means to the Indian,” a chapter in Mary White’s How To Make Baskets (1901)
Birds Every Child Should Know (1907)
The American Flower Garden (1909)
Birds Worth Knowing (1917)
Canadian Birds Worth Knowing (1917)
Wild Flowers Worth Knowing (adapted from Nature’s Garden by Asa Don Dickenson, 1917, 1922)
Birds: Selected from the Writings of Neltje Blanchan (posthumously, 1930)
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When you are taking a shower and the water pressure goes down – you know the cows are drinking from the cattle waterer in the corrals.
When the power goes off you are more worried about the electric fence keeping the cows in and the fans in the barn than you are about the refrigerator in the house
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You don’t hang laundry on the clothesline during spring and fall because the heavy traffic coming down the road creates clouds of dust.
Your kids take the the time to properly close and latch every gate behind them because otherwise you’ll end up with #3 and they’ve had to help you chase cows at 6:00 in the morning – through wet grass – on a Saturday – so, no thanks, latch that gate.
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