On This Day
1907 – Fifteen people are killed in Hungary when a gunman opens fire on a crowd gathered at a church consecration.
The Černová massacre (or Černová tragedy, Slovak: Černovská tragédia, Hungarian: Csernovai tragédia or Csernova Affair) was a shooting that took place in Csernova, Kingdom of Hungary (today Černová, part of Ružomberok, Slovakia) on 27 October 1907 in which 15 people were killed and many were wounded after gendarmes fired into a crowd of people gathering for the consecration of the local Catholic church. The shootings sparked protests in European and American press and turned world’s attention to the treatment of minorities in the Hungarian part of Austria-Hungary.
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1420 – Beijing is officially designated the capital of the Ming dynasty when the Forbidden City is completed.
Beijing (/ˌbeɪˈdʒɪŋ/ BAY-JING Mandarin pronunciation: [pèi.tɕíŋ] (About this soundlisten)), alternatively romanized as Peking (/ˌpeɪˈkɪŋ/ PEY-KING), is the capital of the People’s Republic of China (alternatively shortened as China). It is the world’s most populous capital city, with over 21 million residents within an administrative area of 16,410.5 km2. The city, located in North China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of the central government with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts. Beijing is mostly surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin to the southeast; together, the three divisions form the Jingjinji megalopolis and the national capital region of China. Beijing is a global city, and one of the world’s leading center for culture, diplomacy and politics, business and economy, education, language, and science and technology. A megacity, Beijing is the second-largest Chinese city by urban population after Shanghai and is the nation’s cultural, educational, and political center. It is home to the headquarters of most of China’s largest state-owned companies and houses the largest number of Fortune Global 500 companies in the world, as well as the world’s four biggest financial institutions. Beijing has also been described as the “billionaire capital of the world” after overtaking New York City. It is also a major hub for the national highway, expressway, railway, and high-speed rail networks. The Beijing Capital International Airport has been the second busiest in the world by passenger traffic since 2010, and, as of 2016, the city’s subway network is the busiest and longest in the world. The Beijing Daxing International Airport, a second international airport in Beijing, is the largest single-structure airport terminal in the world.
Combining both modern and traditional architecture, Beijing is one of the oldest cities in the world, with a rich history dating back three millennia. As the last of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, Beijing has been the political center of the country for most of the past eight centuries, and was the largest city in the world by population for much of the second millennium AD. With mountains surrounding the inland city on three sides, in addition to the old inner and outer city walls, Beijing was strategically poised and developed to be the residence of the emperor and thus was the perfect location for the imperial capital. The city is renowned for its opulent palaces, temples, parks, gardens, tombs, walls and gates. It has seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites—the Forbidden City, Temple of Heaven, Summer Palace, Ming Tombs, Zhoukoudian, and parts of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal—all of which are tourist locations. Siheyuans, the city’s traditional housing style, and hutongs, the narrow alleys between siheyuans, are major tourist attractions and are common in urban Beijing.
Many of Beijing’s 91 universities consistently rank among the best in Asia and the world Beijing is home to the two best universities (Tsinghua and Peking) in Asia and emerging countries, claiming the top 2 spots in the THE Asia University Rankings, the QS BRICS University Rankings, and the THE Emerging Economies Rankings. Beijing CBD is a center for Beijing’s economic expansion, with the ongoing or recently completed construction of multiple skyscrapers. Beijing’s Zhongguancun area is known as China’s Silicon Valley and is a center of scientific and technological innovation as well as entrepreneurship. Beijing is also the top city in the world by scientific research as tracked by the Nature Index for the fifth consecutive year.
Beijing has hosted numerous international and national sporting events, the most notable was the 2008 Summer Olympics and 2008 Summer Paralympics Games. Beijing will become the first ever to host both the Summer and the Winter Olympics and also become the first ever to host both the Summer and the Winter Paralympics.
Born On This Day
1561 – Mary Sidney, English writer, patroness and translator (d. 1621)
Mary Herbert, Countess of Pembroke (née Sidney; 27 October 1561 – 25 September 1621) was among the first Englishwomen to gain major repute for her poetry and literary patronage. By the age of 39, she was listed along with her brother Philip Sidney and with Edmund Spenser and William Shakespeare among the notable authors of the day in John Bodenham’s verse miscellany Belvidere. Her play Antonius is widely recognized as reviving interest in soliloquy based on classical models and as one likely source of Samuel Daniel’s closet drama Cleopatra (1594) and of Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra (1607).[A] She was also known for translating Petrarch’s “Triumph of Death,” for the poetry anthology Triumphs, and above all for a lyrical translation of the Psalms.
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1867 – Sister Nivedita, Irish-Indian nurse, author, and educator (d. 1911)
Sister Nivedita (Bengali pronunciation: [bhågini: niːbediːtaː] About this soundlisten (help·info); born Margaret Elizabeth Noble; 28 October 1867 – 13 October 1911) was an Irish teacher, author, social activist, school founder and disciple of Swami Vivekananda. She spent her childhood and early youth in Ireland. She was engaged to marry a Welsh youth, but he died soon after their engagement.
Sister Nivedita met Swami Vivekananda in 1895 in London and travelled to Calcutta (present-day Kolkata), India in 1898. Swami Vivekananda gave her the name Nivedita (meaning “Dedicated to God”) when he initiated her into the vow of Brahmacharya on 25 March 1898. In November 1898, she opened a girls’ school in the Bagbazar area of Calcutta. She wanted to educate girls who were deprived of even basic education. During the plague epidemic in Calcutta in 1899, Nivedita nursed and took care of the poor patients. Nivedita had close associations with the newly established Ramakrishna Mission. Because of her active contribution in the field of Indian Nationalism, she had to publicly dissociate herself from the activities of the Ramakrishna Mission under the then president Swami Brahmananda. She was very close to Sarada Devi, the spiritual consort of Ramakrishna and one of the major influences behind Ramakrishna Mission, and also with all brother disciples of Swami Vivekananda. She died on 13 October 1911 in Darjeeling. Her epitaph reads, “Here lies Sister Nivedita who gave her all to India”.
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