1628 – French Wars of Religion: The Siege of La Rochelle, which had lasted for 14 months, ends with the surrender of the Huguenots.
The French Wars of Religion, or Huguenot Wars of the 16th century, are names for a period of civil infighting, military operations and religious war primarily fought between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed Protestants) in the Kingdom of France. The conflict involved several independent principalities: the Duchy of Lorraine, the Duchy of Savoy, the Kingdom of Navarre, and parts of Burgundy which have since been incorporated into France. And it occasionally spilled beyond the French region, for instance in the war with Spain, from 1595-1598, into northern Italy, some of the German states of the Holy Roman Empire, and the Duchy of Burgundy possessions in the Low Countries.
Approximately 3,000,000 people perished as a result of violence, famine, and disease in what is accounted as the second deadliest European religious war (behind the Thirty Years’ War, which took 8,000,000 lives in present-day Germany). Although the war was religious in nature, it was undergirded by feuds among immensely rich and powerful noble families of France and its surrounding principalities: the ambitious and fervently Roman Catholic House of Guise (a branch of the House of Lorraine) and their ally Anne de Montmorency, Constable of France (i.e., commander in chief of the French armed forces) versus the less wealthy House of Condé (a branch of the House of Bourbon), who were in the direct line of succession to the French throne and sympathetic to Calvinism. Foreign governments also provided financing and other assistance to both sides, with Hapsburg Spain and the Duchy of Savoy supporting the Guises, and England supporting the Protestant side led by the Condés and by the Protestant Jeanne d’Albret, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, King of Navarre, and her son, Henry of Navarre.
Moderates, primarily associated with the French monarchy and its advisers, tried to balance the situation and avoid an open bloodshed. This group (pejoratively known as Politiques) put their hopes in the ability of a strong centralized government to maintain order and harmony. In contrast to the previous hardline policies of Henri II and Francis I, they began introducing gradual concessions to Huguenots. A most notable moderate, at least initially, was the queen mother, Catherine de’ Medici. Catherine, however, later hardened her stance and, at the time of the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in 1572, sided with the Guises. This pivotal historical event involved a complete breakdown of state control resulting in series of riots and massacres in which Catholic mobs killed between 5,000 and 30,000 Protestants over a period of weeks throughout the entire kingdom.
At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, the Protestant Henry of Navarre, heir to the French throne, converted to Catholicism and was crowned Henry IV of France. He issued the Edict of Nantes, which granted Huguenots substantial rights and freedoms though this did not end Catholic hostility towards them or towards him, personally.
The wars of religion threatened the authority of the monarchy, already fragile under the rule of Francis II and then Charles IX. Though he would be assassinated in 1610 Henry IV’s wise governance and selection of able administrators did leave a legacy of a strong centralized government, stability, and economic prosperity that has gained him the reputation as France’s best and most beloved ruler.
1864 – Adolfo Camarillo, American-Mexican rancher and philanthropist (d. 1958)
Adolfo Camarillo (October 28, 1864 – December 10, 1958) was a prominent land owner, horse breeder, rancher, and philanthropist in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the Ventura County area of California in the United States. Adolfo, along with his brother Juan, Jr., owned much of what later became the town known by their family name, Camarillo. Adolfo also donated the land for Adolfo Camarillo High School. The horse breed Camarillo White Horse was named for Camarillo. He began breeding them in 1921 and the line continues today. Because of Adolfo’s philanthropy in 1950, Pope Pius XII named Adolfo a Knight of St. Gregory the Great.
Adolfo was born to Juan Camarillo (1812–1880) and Martina Camarillo (1826–1898). He had four sisters and one brother. When Juan Camarillo died in 1880, one of the last remaining Mexican land grants, Rancho Calleguas, was purchased from the Ruiz family in 1875 and was later willed to his wife. Upon Juan’s death, Adolfo took over operations of the family ranch at age 16. His brother Juan was more interested in religion. The ranch is almost 10,000 acres.
In 1885 Adolfo graduated from International Business College at (Woodbury University). After that he took over full-time management of the ranch at age 21. In 1888 Adolfo married Isabella Menchaca (1861–1936). He and Isabel raised seven children: Frank, Isabel, Minerva, Rosa, Carmen, Ave Marie, and Martina. Upon the death of Martina Camarillo, she bequeathed Rancho Calleguas to her sons, Adolfo and Juan, Jr. This would later go on to become Camarillo Ranch and later the city of Camarillo. Adolfo ran the Camarillo Ranch until his death in 1958.
The ranch grew from a mostly cattle operation to both cattle and crops. Adolfo focused mainly in developing crops and became a leading innovator bringing in lima beans, plus barley, corn, alfalfa, walnuts, and citrus.
Adolfo Camarillo had a love of fiestas, horses, rodeos and barbecues. Adolfo kept a stable of a dozen pure white horses of Arabian and Morgan descent. His horses often participated in parades in California.
Adolfo died of pneumonia December 10, 1958, and is interred in the family crypt beneath St. Mary Magdalen Church in Camarillo, alongside his parents, his wife, sisters and brothers.
Camarillo Ranch House
Camarillo Ranch House, also known as Rancho Calleguas and Adolfo Camarillo House, is a Queen Anne-style Victorian house in Camarillo, California. Built in 1892, the 6,000-square-foot (560 m2) house was designed by architects Herman Anlauf and Franklin Ward., Adolfo Camarillo operated the ranch for 78 years, changing the operations from mostly cattle to crops. He was a leading innovator growing lima beans, barley, corn, alfalfa, walnuts, citrus and eucalyptus trees. The house was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2003.
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