On This Day
1792 – French Revolution: The National Convention abolishes the monarchy.
During the French Revolution, the proclamation of the abolition of the monarchy (French: Proclamation de l’abolition de la royauté) was a proclamation by the National Convention of France announcing that it had abolished the French monarchy on 21 September 1792.
The Convention’s députés were instructed to put an end to the crisis that had broken out since the prevented flight to Varennes of Louis XVI (June 1791) and the bloody capture of the Tuileries (10 August 1792). Their middle-class origin and their political activity meant that most of them bore no sympathy for the monarchy, and the victory at the battle of Valmy on 20 September (the revolution’s first military success) occurred on the same day as their meeting, thus confirming their convictions.
Proposition for abolition
When the député for Paris, Jean-Marie Collot d’Herbois, proposed abolition he met with little resistance; at most, Claude Basire, friend of Georges Jacques Danton, tried to temper the enthusiasm, recommending a discussion before any decision. However, abbé Henri Grégoire, constitutional bishop of Blois, replied strongly to any suggestion of discussion:
“ What need do we have of discussion when everyone is in agreement? Kings are as much monsters in the moral order as in the physical order. The Courts are a workshop for crime, the foyer for corruption and the den of tyrants. The history of kings is the martyrology of nations! ”
Jean-François Ducos supported him in affirming that any discussion would be useless “after the lights spread by 10 August”. The summary argument served as a debate and the decision taken was unanimous, giving birth to the First French Republic.
End of an era
In the wake of the proclamation, efforts grew to eliminate the vestiges of the ancien regime. As the date of the Republic’s first anniversary approached, the Convention passed a set of laws replacing many familiar ancien systems of order and measurement, including the old Christian calendar. This dramatic change was powerful encouragement to the growing wave of anticlericalism which sought a dechristianisation of France. The new French Republican Calendar discarded all Christian reference points and calculated time from the Republic’s first full day after the monarchy, 22 September 1792, the first day of Year One.
Born On This Day
1884 – Dénes Kőnig, Hungarian mathematician and theorist (d. 1944)
Dénes Kőnig (September 21, 1884 – October 19, 1944) was a Hungarian mathematician of Jewish heritage who worked in and wrote the first textbook on the field of graph theory.
Kőnig was born in Budapest, the son of mathematician Gyula Kőnig. In 1907, he received his doctorate at, and joined the faculty of the Royal Joseph University in Budapest (today Budapest University of Technology and Economics). His classes were visited by Paul Erdős, who, as a first year student, solved one of his problems. Kőnig became a full professor there in 1935. To honor his fathers’ death in 1913, Kőnig and his brother György created the Gyula Kőnig prize in 1918. This prize was meant to be an endowment for young mathematicians, however was later devaluated. But the prize remained as a medal of high scientific recognition. In 1899, he published his first work while still attending High School in a journal Matematikai és Fizikai Lapok. After his graduation in 1902, he won first place in a mathematical competition “Eötvös Loránd”. Shortly after he wrote the first of two book collections Matematikai Mulatságok (Mathematical Entertainments). He spent four semesters at the university in Budapest and his last five in Göttingen, during which he studied under the famous mathematicians József Kürschák and Hermann Minkowski. He then received his doctorate  in 1907 due to his dissertation in geometry, that same year he began working for the Technische Hochschule in Budapest and remained a part of the faculty till his death in 1944. At first he started as an assistant in problem sessions, in 1910 he was promoted to “oberassistant”, and then promoted to “Privatdocent”  in 1911 teaching nomography, analysis situs (later to be known as topology), set theory, real numbers and functions, and graph theory (the name “graph theory” didn’t appear in the university catalogue until 1927). During this time he would be a guest speaker giving mathematics lecture for architecture and chemistry students, in 1920 these lectures made their way into book form. at the Technische Hochschule.
From 1915 to 1942 he was on a committee to judge school contests in mathematics, collecting problems for these contests, and organizing them. Then in 1933 he was elected as secretary of the society  and in 1942 he became the chairman of this committee. He then decided to make edits in the society’s journal during his time on the committee till his death. Kőnig’s activities and lectures played a vital role in the growth of graph theoretical work of: László Egyed, Paul Erdős, Tibor Gallai, György Hajós, József Kraus, Tibor Szele, Pál Turán, Endre Vázsonyi, and many others. He then went on to write the first book on graph theory Theorie der endlichen und unendlichen Graphen in 1936. This marked the beginning of graph theory as its own branch of mathematics. Then in 1958, Claude Berge wrote the second book on graph theory, Théorie des Graphes et ses applications, following Kőnig.
After the occupation of Hungary by the Nazis, he worked to help persecuted mathematicians. On October 15, 1944 the National Socialist Arrow Cross Party took over the country. Days later on October 19, 1944 he committed suicide to evade persecution from the Nazis being a Hungarian Jew.
William Barron Hilton (October 23, 1927 – September 19, 2019) was an American business magnate, philanthropist and sportsman. The son and successor of hotelier Conrad Hilton, he was the chairman, president and chief executive officer of Hilton Hotels Corporation and chairman emeritus of the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation. Hilton, a notable pilot and outdoorsman, was also a founder of the American Football League as the original owner of the Los Angeles Chargers, and helped forge the merger with the National Football League that created the Super Bowl. Like his father before him, he pledged 97 percent of his wealth to the humanitarian work of the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation.
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