FYI April 21, 2019

On This Day

900 – The Laguna Copperplate Inscription (the earliest known written document found in what is now the Philippines): the Commander-in-Chief of the Kingdom of Tondo, as represented by the Honourable Jayadewa, Lord Minister of Pailah, pardons from all debt the Honourable Namwaran and his relations.
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription (Filipino: Inskripsyon sa Binatbat na Tanso ng Laguna, Malay: Prasasti keping tembaga Laguna; often shortened into the acronym LCI), a legal document inscribed on a copper plate in 900 CE, is the earliest known calendar-dated document found in the Philippines. The date of the inscription would make it contemporary to the Balitung kingdom of Central Java, although it necessarily did not originate from that area.[1]

The plate was found in 1989 by a laborer near the mouth of the Lumbang River in Wawa barangay, Lumban municipality, Laguna province. The inscription, written in a mix of the Old Malay language using the Old Kawi script, was first deciphered by Dutch anthropologist and Hanunó’o script expert Antoon Postma in 1992.[1][2]

The LCI documents the existence of several early Philippine polities as early as AD 900, most notably the Pasig River delta polity of Tondo.[1] Scholars believe that it also indicates trade, cultural, and possibly political ties between these polities and at least one contemporaneous Asian civilization—the Medang Kingdom of the island of Java.[1]

The inscription was written in Kawi script—a writing system developed in Java, and using a mixture of languages including Sanskrit, Old Javanese, and Old Malay. This was a rare trace of Javanese influence, which suggests the extent of interinsular exchanges of that time.[3]



Born On This Day

1911 – Ivan Combe, American businessman, developed Clearasil (d. 2000)
Ivan DeBlois Combe (April 21, 1911 – January 11, 2000) was the American inventor of personal-care products, most notably Clearasil and Odor Eaters. In 1949 he established his eponymous company Combe Incorporated in White Plains, New York.

Early life and career
Ivan DeBlois Combe was born in Fremont, Iowa, on April 21, 1911. Combe graduated from Northwestern University in 1933, and earned a law degree from the Northwestern University School of Law in 1936.[1]

He became a salesman for Hydrox Ice Cream and the Wilbur Shoe Polish company before moving to New York City to work for the Young & Rubicam advertising agency. He later joined Pharmacraft, a drug manufacturer, but in 1949, left his vice president position to create his own company.[1]

Combe died in Greenwich, Connecticut on January 11, 2000.[1]

After his death, Northwestern University named the Combe Tennis Center in his honor.



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Michael’s Test Kitchen: Melt-In-Your-Mouth Salmon

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