On This Day
The Union of Lublin (Polish: unia lubelska; Lithuanian: Liublino unija) was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It replaced the personal union of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with a real union and an elective monarchy, since Sigismund II Augustus, the last of the Jagiellons, remained childless after three marriages. In addition, the autonomy of Royal Prussia was largely abandoned. The Duchy of Livonia, tied to Lithuania in real union since the Union of Grodno (1566), became a Polish–Lithuanian condominium.
The Commonwealth was ruled by a single elected monarch who carried out the duties of King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, and governed with a common Senate and parliament (the Sejm). The Union was an evolutionary stage in the Polish–Lithuanian alliance and personal union, necessitated also by Lithuania’s dangerous position in wars with Russia.
Constituting a crucial event in the history of several nations, the Union of Lublin has been viewed quite differently by many historians. Sometimes identified as the moment at which the szlachta (including Lithuanians/Ruthenians) rose to the height of their power, establishing a democracy of noblemen as opposed to absolute monarchy. Some historians concentrate on its positive aspects, emphasizing its peaceful, voluntary creation, inclusive character and its role in spreading of economical welfare and good laws; others see there a possible cause of social and political instability that led to the Partitions of Poland about 200 years later. Some Lithuanian historians are more critical of the Union, concluding it was an effect of domination by Polish nobles.
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Born On This Day
1903 – Amy Johnson, English pilot (d. 1941)
Amy Johnson CBE (1 July 1903 – 5 January 1941) was a pioneering English aviator who was the first female pilot to fly alone from Britain to Australia.
Flying solo or with her husband, Jim Mollison, she set numerous long-distance records during the 1930s. She flew in the Second World War as a part of the Air Transport Auxiliary and died during a ferry flight.
Harlan Jay Ellison (May 27, 1934 – June 28, 2018) was an American writer, known for his prolific and influential work in New Wave speculative fiction, and for his outspoken, combative personality.
His published works include more than 1,700 short stories, novellas, screenplays, comic book scripts, teleplays, essays, a wide range of criticism covering literature, film, television, and print media. Some of his best-known work includes the Star Trek episode “The City on the Edge of Forever”, A Boy and His Dog, “I Have No Mouth, and I Must Scream”, and “‘Repent, Harlequin!’ Said the Ticktockman”, and as editor and anthologist for Dangerous Visions (1967) and Again, Dangerous Visions (1972). Ellison won numerous awards, including multiple Hugos, Nebulas, and Edgars.
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Henrik Edberg: The Positivity Blog 3 Big Mistakes I’ve Made with Stress
I’ve made many mistakes when it comes to stress and how I handled it over the
And things really came to a head in 2013 when I got stuck in a prolonged,
9-month crisis with my business and as things just got worse and worse as each
That was the point when I had finally had enough of all the stress and had to
really reexamine how I handled it and find a better and healthier way forward.
Today I’d like to share 3 of biggest mistakes that I realized I was making over
and over again with the stress in my life.
1. I didn’t take a little time each day to question and to think about
what was most important to focus on.
That got me stuck in quickly doing busy work on things that I should have spent
a lot less time and energy on (and in plenty of cases no time on). And it got me
stuck in stress at the end of the week about the tasks I hadn’t even put a dent in
even though they were very important.
So I put up a note on my computer screen in my workspace. That note said:
what would I work on if I only had 2 hours for work today?
2. I looked at what everyone else was doing and their successes all
Both in real life and online like on Facebook. And so my stress ramped up
because I felt I was way behind. While at the same time my motivation to
keep going sank (because what was the point if I was so far behind?)
In the past few years I’ve learned that there’s a lot less stress and much more
motivation in comparing myself to myself instead. In seeing how far I have
come and in focusing my attention fully on doing my best.
3. I didn’t take responsibility for what I actually could control.
Like the clutter in my workspace. It may not sound important. But actually
spending a few minutes a couple of times a week on keeping my workspace
ordered and clutter-free makes a big daily difference for my ability to fully
And everyone has setbacks and bad luck. But how one chooses to respond to that
makes all the difference.
I often used to handle it by blaming others or by feeling sorry for myself. Asking
myself about what I can learn from this situation and choosing an optimistic
route instead makes a big difference for the stress in my life nowadays
(and for what I get to done at the end of the day).
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