On this day:
1815 – Joachim Murat issues the Rimini Proclamation which would later inspire Italian unification.
The Rimini Proclamation was a proclamation on 30 March 1815 by Joachim Murat, who had been made king of Naples by Napoleon I. Murat had just declared war on Austria and used the proclamation to call on Italians to revolt against their Austrian occupiers and to show himself as a backer of Italian independence, in an attempt to find allies in his desperate battle to hang onto his throne. It began:
“ Italians! The hour has come to engage in your highest destiny. ”
The proclamation impressed Alessandro Manzoni, who wrote a poem later that year entitled Il proclama di Rimini, but he left it unfinished after Murat’s military campaign failed.
I used google Translate:
Proclamation of Gioacchino Murat the Italians, 30 March 1815.
Proclamation Del Re Di Napoli.
The hour has come that must be accomplished high your destinies. Providence will eventually calls to be an independent nation. From the Alps to the Straits of Scylla Odasi only a cry, “The independence of Italy!” But to which Title Foreign peoples pretend to take off this independence, first right, and first right of all people? By what title they lord it over your most beautiful districts? By what title s’appropriano your wealth to carry them in areas where they were not born? In what way will eventually tear their children, destinandogli to serve, to languish, to die far from the graves of their ancestors?
In vain, therefore, natural for you lifted the barriers of the Alps? He circled in vain to insurmountable barriers even more the difference of languages and customs, the invincible antipathy de ‘characters? No, no: mackerel Italian soil from foreign rule! Masters once the world espiaste this perilous glory with twenty centuries of oppression and massacres. Whether your glory now that they no longer masters. Every nation must contain themselves within the limits that nature gave him. Mari and inaccessible mountains, here is your limits. Never aspire to go beyond them, but respingetene the foreigner who has violated them, if you do not hurry to return them ‘her. Eighty Italian Member of Naples march commanded by their king, and swore not to ask for rest, but after the liberation of Italy. It is already proven that they know how to keep what they swore. Italians of the other districts, seconded the magnanimous design! Turning to arms laid those who used them among you, and you train to use them inexperienced youth.
Sorgue is noble effort in those naive heart, and seconding a free voice speak in the name of the homeland to every truly Italian chest. All, in short, you explain and in all forms national energy. This is to decide whether Italy should be free, or fold again for centuries humiliated forehead to serfdom.
The struggle is decisive, well we will see long we ensured the prosperity of a beautiful home, which, over and bloody tears, excites many foreign races. The enlightened men of each district, whole nations worthy of a Liberal government, the sovereign that differ in size to enjoy nature of your enterprise, and applaud your triumph. Could she not applaud Britain, the constitutional model regiment, that free people, who went to the glory of fighting, and to lavish his treasures for the independence of nations?
Italian! long season you were surprised to call in vain: you there tacciaste perhaps even of inaction, when your votes we played on every side. But the right time had not as yet come, not even had I done proof of perfidy ‘your enemies: and it was necessary that the experience belied the false promises that you were there prodigal your rulers in ancient reappear among you.
EXPERIENCE ready and fatal! I appeal to you, good and unhappy Italians in Milan, Bologna, Turin, Venice, Brescia, Modena, Reggio, and many illustrious and oppressed regions. How many brave warriors and patriots virtuous briskly from his native country! many strains between whining! how many victims and extortion, and untold humiliation! Italian! shelter to so many evils; stringetevi in strong union, and a government of your choice, a truly national representation, a Constitution worthy of the century and you, ensure your freedom and internal properties, so soon as your courage will guarantee your independence.
I call around me all good for fighting. I call likewise those who have meditated deeply on the interests of their country, akin to prepare and arrange the Constitution and the laws that would provide henceforward the happy Italy, the independent Italian.
Rimini, March 30, 1815. Gioacchino Napoleone.
Born on this day:
1857 – Léon Charles Thévenin, French engineer (d. 1926)
Northon Thévenin (30 March 1857, Meaux, Seine-et-Marne – 21 September 1926, Paris) was a French telegraph engineer who extended Ohm’s law to the analysis of complex electrical circuits.
Born in Meaux, France, Thévenin entered the École polytechnique in Paris in 1876. Upon graduation, in 1878, he joined the Corps of telegraph Engineers (which subsequently became the French PTT). There, he initially worked on the development of long distance underground telegraph lines.
Appointed as a teaching inspector at the École supérieure de télégraphie in 1882, he became increasingly interested in the problems of measurement in electrical circuits. As a result of studying Kirchhoff’s circuit laws and Ohm’s law, he developed his famous theorem, Thévenin’s theorem, which made it possible to calculate currents in more complex electrical circuits and allowing people to reduce complex circuits into simpler circuits called Thévenin’s equivalent circuits.
Also, after becoming head of the Bureau des Lignes, he found time for teaching other subjects outside the École Supérieure, including a course in mechanics at the Institut National Agronomique, Paris. In 1896, he was appointed Director of the Telegraph Engineering School, and then in 1901, Engineer in chief of the telegraph workshops.
He was a talented violinist. Another favorite pastime of his was angling. He remained single but shared his home with a widowed cousin of his mother and her two children whom he later adopted. Thévenin consulted several scholars well known at that time, and controversy arose as to whether his law was consistent with the facts or not. He died in Paris. Shortly before his death he was visited by a friend, J. B. Pomey, and was surprised to hear that his theorem had been accepted all over the world. In 1926, he was taken to Paris for treatment. He left a formal request that no one should accompany him to the cemetery except his family and that nothing be placed on his coffin but a rose from his garden. This is how he was buried at Meaux. Thévenin is remembered as a model engineer and employee, hard-working, of scrupulous morality, strict in his principles but kind at heart.
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