FYI May 24, 2017

May 24th is National Escargot Day!

On this day:

1689 – The English Parliament passes the Act of Toleration protecting dissenting Protestants but excluding Roman Catholics.
The Toleration Act 1689 (1 Will & Mary c 18), also referred to as the Act of Toleration,[3] was an Act of the Parliament of England, which received the royal assent on 24 May 1689.[4][5]

The Act allowed freedom of worship to nonconformists who had pledged to the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy and rejected transubstantiation, i.e., Protestants who dissented from the Church of England such as Baptists and Congregationalists but not to Catholics. Nonconformists were allowed their own places of worship and their own teachers, as long as they accepted certain oaths of allegiance.

It purposely did not apply to Catholics, nontrinitarians[6] and atheists.[7] The Act continued the existing social and political disabilities for Dissenters, including their exclusion from political office and also from universities.

Dissenters were required to register their meeting locations and were forbidden from meeting in private homes. Any preachers who dissented had to be licensed.

Between 1772 and 1774, Reverend Doctor Edward Pickard gathered together dissenting ministers in order that the terms of the Toleration Act for dissenting clergy could be modified. Under his leadership, Parliament twice considered bills to modify the law. Both were unsuccessful and it was not until Pickard and many had lost interest that a new attempt was made in 1779.[8]

The Act was amended (1779) by substituting belief in Scripture for belief in the Anglican (doctrinal) articles, but penalties on property remained.

Penalties against Unitarians were finally removed in the Doctrine of the Trinity Act 1813.

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Born on this day:

1878 – Lillian Moller Gilbreth, American psychologist and engineer (d. 1972)
Lillian Evelyn Moller Gilbreth (May 24, 1878 – January 2, 1972) was an American psychologist and industrial engineer. She was described in the 1940s as “a genius in the art of living.”[2] One of the first working female engineers holding a Ph.D., she is held to be the first true industrial/organizational psychologist. She and her husband Frank Bunker Gilbreth, Sr. were efficiency experts who contributed to the study of industrial engineering in fields such as motion study and human factors. The books Cheaper by the Dozen and Belles on Their Toes (written by their children Ernestine and Frank Jr.) tell the story of their family life with their twelve children, and describe how they applied their interest in time and motion study to the organization and daily activities of such a large family.[3] Both books were later made into feature films.

Skipped to:
Volunteer work and government service
Her government work began as a result of her longtime friendship with Herbert Hoover and his wife Lou Henry Hoover, both of whom she had known in California;[29] Gilbreth had presided over the Women’s Branch of the Engineers’ Hoover for President campaign.[30] At the behest of Lou Henry Hoover, Gilbreth joined the Girl Scouts as a consultant in 1929, later becoming a member of the board of directors, and remained active in the organization for more than twenty years.[31]
A photograph of Gilbreth distributed during the Great Depression

Under the Hoover administration, she worked on and headed the women’s section of the President’s Emergency Committee for Employment in 1930, where she worked to gain the cooperation of women’s groups for reducing unemployment.[32] During World War II, she was an advisor to several governmental groups, providing expertise on education and labor (particularly women in the workforce) for organizations such as for the War Manpower Commission, the Office of War Information,[33] and the United States Navy.[34] In later years, she served on the Chemical Warfare Board[35] and on Harry Truman’s Civil Defense Advisory Council.[36] During the Korean War, she served on the Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the Services.[37]

Gilbreth had always been interested in teaching and education; as an undergraduate she took enough education courses to earn a teacher’s certificate,[38] and her second doctoral dissertation was on efficient teaching methods.[39]

While residing in Providence, Rhode Island, she and husband taught free two-week summer schools in scientific management from 1913 to 1916.[40] They later discussed teaching the “Gilbreth system” of motion study to members of industry, but it was not until after her husband’s death that she created a formal motion study course. This system she presented at the 1. PIMCO – First Prague International Management Congress in Prague on July 1924. Her first course began in January 1925, and it offered to “prepare a member of an organization, who has adequate training both in scientific method and in plant problems, to take charge of Motion Study work in that organization.”[41] Coursework included laboratory projects and field trips to private firms to witness the application of scientific management.[42] She ran a total of seven motion study courses out of her home in Montclair, New Jersey until 1930.[43]

Meanwhile, Gilbreth had been lecturing at Purdue University since 1925, where her husband had previously given annual lectures.[44] This led to a visiting professorship in 1935, when she became the first female engineering professor at Purdue; she was granted full professorship in 1940, dividing her time between the departments of industrial engineering, industrial psychology, home economics, and the dean’s office where she consulted on careers for women.[45] In the School of Industrial Engineering, she helped establish a time and motion study laboratory, and transferred motion study techniques to the home economics department under the banner of “work simplification”.[46] She retired from Purdue in 1948.[47]

Besides teaching at Purdue, she was also appointed Knapp Visiting Professor at the University of Wisconsin’s School of Engineering,[48] and taught at other universities including the Newark College of Engineering (1941–43),[49] Bryn Mawr College, and Rutgers University.[50] She became resident lecturer at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1964, at the age of 86.[51]

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1879 – H. B. Reese, American candy maker, created Reese’s Peanut Butter Cups (d. 1956)
Harry Burnett “H. B.” Reese (May 24, 1879 – May 16, 1956) was an American inventor and businessman known for creating Reese’s Peanut Butter Cups and founding the H. B. Reese Candy Company.[1]

Reese was born in York County, Pennsylvania on an agricultural and dairy farm.[1] He was the son of Annie Belinda (Manifold) and Aquilla Asbury Reese.[2] He married Blanche Edna (Hyson) Reese on August 1, 1900.[1] H.B Reese invented Reese’s Peanut Butter Cups in 1928.[1]

He first moved to Hershey, Pennsylvania in 1917, where he enjoyed a relatively prosperous job on a dairy farm owned by The Hershey Company until the farm was closed by Hershey’s.[1] Not long after moving his family to Spring Grove, Pennsylvania, Reese moved back to Hershey, again working for Hershey’s.[1] Always an entrepreneur and inspired by his work, Reese began experimenting with candies in his basement, by 1923 he created the H. B. Reese Candy Company.[1] He built a new home and factory for his growing business in 1926, selling a large assortment of candies.[1] By 1928, H. B. and Blanche had sixteen children.[1] That same year, H. B. Reese invented Reese’s Peanut Butter Cups.[1] H.B. Reese initially sold his many candies on consignment to retail stores, but by 1935 he was a success and was able to pay off all his mortgages.[1]

During World War II, economic constraints and scarcity of materials led him to discontinue his other candies and concentrate solely on his peanut butter cups, his most popular offering.[1]


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