On this day:
1834 – Minister of Justice Joaquim António de Aguiar issues a law seizing “all convents, monasteries, colleges, hospices and any other houses” from the Catholic religious orders in Portugal, earning him the nickname of “The Friar-Killer”.
Joaquim António de Aguiar (Coimbra, 24 August 1792 – Lisbon, 26 May 1884) was a Portuguese politician. He held several relevant political posts during the Portuguese constitutional monarchy, namely as leader of the Cartists and later of the Partido Regenerador (English: Regenerator Party). He was three times prime minister of Portugal: between 1841 and 1842, in 1860 and finally from 1865 to 1868, when he entered a coalition with the Partido Progressista (English: Progressist Party), in what became known as the Governo de Fusão (English: Fusion Government).
He also served as minister of justice during the regency of Peter IV and in that capacity issued the 30 May 1834 law which extinguished “all convents, monasteries, colleges, hospices and any other houses of the regular religious orders”. Their vast patrimony was taken over by the Portuguese State and incorporated into the Fazenda Nacional (the National Exchequer). This law and its anti-ecclesiastical spirit earned Joaquim António de Aguiar the nickname “O Mata-Frades” (English: “The Friar-Killer”).
Dissolution of the monasteries in Portugal
The dissolution of the monasteries in Portugal was a nationalization of the property of male monastic orders effected by a decree of 28 May 1834 enacted by Joaquim António de Aguiar at the conclusion of the Portuguese Civil War. Portugal thus terminated the State sanction of masculine religious orders, and nationalized the lands and possessions of over 500 monasteries. The new government hoped to distribute land and goods in the hands among the poorer landowners, but there were few who could buy.
Born on this day:
1869 – Grace Andrews, American mathematician (d. 1951)
Grace Andrews (May 30, 1869 – July 27, 1951) was an American mathematician.
Andrews obtained her undergraduate degree from Wellesley College in 1890. She received an A.M. from Columbia University in 1899 and a Ph.D. in 1901. She, along with Charlotte Angas Scott, was one of only two women listed in the first edition of American Men of Science, which appeared in 1906.
She worked as an Assistant Professor of Mathematics for Barnard College from 1900 to 1902. She then served as accountant to the Treasurer for Wesleyan University from 1903 to 1926.
Shared from Vector’s World
Hong Kong population density.
Kowloon was once the densest place on the planet. This notorious city was mostly demolished in the 1990’s, but portions of it remain. Andy Yeung gives a great perspective on apartment living in Kowloon with a series of images taken with a drone. More:
Density by drone: Andy Yeung highlights claustrophobic living in Hong Kong
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