Category: FYI


FYI July 10, 2019

On This Day

1913 – The temperature in Death Valley, California, hits 134 °F (57 °C), the highest temperature ever to be recorded on Earth.
This is a list of weather records, a list of the most extreme occurrences of weather phenomena for various categories. Many weather records are measured under specific conditions—such as surface temperature and wind speed—to keep consistency among measurements around the Earth. Each of these records is understood to be the record value officially observed, as these records may have been exceeded before modern weather instrumentation was invented, or in remote areas without an official weather station. This list does not include remotely sensed observations such as satellite measurements, since those values are not considered official records.[1]



Born On This Day

1724 – Eva Ekeblad, Swedish noble and agronomist (d. 1786)
Eva Ekeblad (née De la Gardie; 10 July 1724 – 15 May 1786) was a Swedish countess, salon hostess, agronomist, and scientist. She was widely known for discovering a method in 1746 to make alcohol and flour from potatoes, allowing greater use of scarce grains for food production, significantly reducing Sweden’s incidence of famine.

Ekeblad was the first female member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (1748).[1][2][3]




Elmore Rual “Rip” Torn Jr. (February 6, 1931 – July 9, 2019) was an American actor, voice artist, and comedian.

Torn was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his part as Marsh Turner in Cross Creek (1984). His work includes the role of Artie the producer on The Larry Sanders Show, for which he was nominated for six Emmy Awards, winning in 1996. He also won an American Comedy Award for Funniest Supporting Male in a Series, and two CableACE Awards for his work on the show, and was nominated for a Satellite Award in 1997 for his role as Chief Zed in Men in Black (1997).

By Bobby Allyn, NPR: Actor Rip Torn, Who Made His Mark On ‘The Larry Sanders Show,’ Dies at 88

Carol at Make a Living Writing: Evan Jensen – 21 paying magazine markets inside
The Passive Voice: Social Media Could Make It Impossible to Grow Up and more ->
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Lakshmi Sadhu: A sober glow-in-the-dark bike rave is happening in Vancouver this weekend
Virginia Hughes, Mental Floss: The History of CTRL + ALT + DELETE In 2013, Bill Gates admitted ctrl+alt+del was a mistake and blamed IBM. Here’s the story of how the key combination became famous in the first place.
Maria Teresa Arnal Managing Director, Mexico: Google for Mexico: Improving Mexicans’ lives through technology
Xinxing Gu Product Manager, Google Translate: Google Translate’s instant camera translation gets an upgrade
By Dan Maloney: Ask Hackaday: What Are Your Apollo Memories?





FYI July 08 & 09, 2019

On This Day

1948 – The United States Air Force accepts its first female recruits into a program called Women in the Air Force (WAF).
Women in the Air Force (WAF) was a program which served to bring women into limited roles in the United States Air Force. WAF was formed in 1948 when President Truman signed the Women’s Armed Services Integration Act, allowing women to serve directly in the military.[1] The WAF program ended in 1976 when women were accepted into the USAF on an equal basis with men.

WAF was distinct from the Women’s Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron (WAFS), a small group of female civilian transport pilots that was formed in 1942 with Nancy H. Love as commander. WAFS was folded into the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs) in 1943; WASP was disbanded in December 1944.


1893 – Daniel Hale Williams, American heart surgeon, performs the first successful open-heart surgery in United States without anesthesia.
Daniel Hale Williams (January 18, 1856[1] – August 4, 1931) was an American general surgeon, who in 1893 performed the first documented, successful pericardium surgery in the United States to repair a wound.[2][3][4][5] He founded Chicago’s Provident Hospital, the first non-segregated hospital in the United States and also founded an associated nursing school for African Americans.

The heart surgery at Provident, which his patient survived for the next twenty years, is referred to as “the first successful heart surgery” by Encyclopedia Britannica.[6][7] In 1913, Williams was elected as the only African-American charter member of the American College of Surgeons.[6]


Born On This Day

1867 – Käthe Kollwitz, German painter and sculptor (d. 1945)
Käthe Kollwitz, née Schmidt (German pronunciation: [kɛːtə kɔlvɪt͡s]; 8 July 1867 – 22 April 1945), was a German artist who worked with painting, printmaking (including etching, lithography and woodcuts) and sculpture. Her most famous art cycles, including The Weavers and The Peasant War, depict the effects of poverty, hunger and war on the working class.[1][2] Despite the realism of her early works, her art is now more closely associated with Expressionism.[3] Kollwitz was the first woman to not only be elected to the Prussian Academy of Arts but to also receive honorary professor status.[4]


1926 – Mathilde Krim, Italian-American medical researcher and health educator (d. 2018)
Mathilde Krim (Hebrew: מתילדה קרים; née Galland; July 9, 1926 – January 15, 2018) was a medical researcher and the founding chairman of amfAR, American Foundation for AIDS Research.

Mathilde Galland was born in Como, Italy to a Swiss Protestant father and Italian Roman Catholic mother.[1] She received her PhD in Biology from the University of Geneva, Switzerland, in 1953. In 1948, she married David Danon, an Israeli man she met at University of Geneva School of Medicine.[2] She converted to Judaism before marriage. [3] They had a daughter and shortly thereafter relocated to Israel.

While living in Switzerland, she assisted members of the Irgun in their efforts to purchase arms from former French resistance members, prior to Israel’s independence. After moving to the U.S., she was also very active in collecting donations for Israel.[4]

Medical research career
From 1953-59, she pursued research in cytogenetics and cancer-causing viruses at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, where she was a member of the team that first developed a method for the prenatal determination of sex.

After her divorce, she moved to New York and joined the research staff of Cornell University Medical School, following her 1958 marriage to Arthur B. Krim — a New York attorney, head of United Artists, later founder of Orion Pictures, active member of the Democratic Party, and advisor to Presidents John F. Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, and Jimmy Carter. On May 19, 1962, the Krims hosted an exclusive celebrity-filled soirée at their home following the 45th birthday party for President John F. Kennedy at Madison Square Garden. During the course of their marriage, Arthur and Mathilde Krim were very active in the American civil rights movement, the movements for independence in Rhodesia and South Africa, the gay rights movement, and in numerous other civil liberties and human rights movements.

In 1962, Krim became a research scientist at the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research and, from 1981-85, she was the director of its interferon lab. Until recently,[when?] she held an academic appointment as Adjunct Professor of Public Health and Management at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health.

Soon after the first cases of what would later be called AIDS were reported in 1981, Krim recognized that this new disease raised grave scientific and medical questions and that it might have important socio-political consequences. She dedicated herself to increasing the public’s awareness of AIDS and to a better understanding of its cause, its modes of transmission, and its epidemiologic pattern.[5][6]

Contributing to the fight against AIDS, she established AIDS Medical Foundation in 1983. Later the Foundation merged with a similar organization and called the American Foundation for AIDS Research (AmFAR). [7] With Elizabeth Taylor, she founded the American Foundation for AIDS Research contributing generous amounts of her own funds and lending her considerable skills to raising awareness about AIDS and raising funds for AIDS research. She continued working on behalf of AIDS awareness through AmfAR.

Awards and recognition
Krim was awarded 16 doctorates honoris causa and has received numerous other honors and distinctions. In August 2000, President Bill Clinton awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor in the United States, in recognition of her “extraordinary compassion and commitment”.[5]

In 2003, Krim received the Award for Greatest Public Service Benefiting the Disadvantaged, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.[8]

Krim died at home in Kings Point, New York on January 15, 2018, aged 91.[9]


Open Culture: When MAD Magazine Ruffled the Feathers of the FBI, Not Once But Three Times; The Most Disturbing Painting: A Close Look at Francisco Goya’s “Saturn Devouring His Son” and more ->
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ARS Technica By Jennifer Ouellette: Snowball the dancing cockatoo has wide range of killer moves, new study finds Head bangs, body rolls, foot lifts, and down shakes—this bird can even vogue.
For those tempted by Snowball’s charm to adopt their own dancing cockatoo, Patel advises caution. Most of the birds in Schulz’s shelter were dropped off by owners who couldn’t handle the long-term commitment required to care for such creatures. Snowball himself ended up there because his previous owner, an elderly man, could no longer care for him after his daughter went off to college. “People get them because they think they’ll be fun and amusing pets,” said Patel. “They don’t realize they have the personality of a three- or four-year-old and they live for 50 years.”
Time By AYA BATRAWY: The First Major Airline Just Dropped Boeing’s 737 Max for a Rival Airplane
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Why you should care
Progressive waste laws are playing a game of “pass the trash” that falls mostly on poor, rural, minority communities in the South. Weekly Newsletter 7-8-19: While it’s uncertain whether the plants were cultivated intentionally or selectively harvested for high potency, it is clear that glaciers played a central role in hydrating the marijuana used in western China around 500 BC. And more ->
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FYI July 06 & 07, 2019

On This Day

1865 – The first issue of The Nation magazine is published.
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, covering progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis. It was founded on July 6, 1865, as a successor to William Lloyd Garrison’s The Liberator.[3] It is published by its namesake owner The Nation Company, L.P., at 33 Irving Place, New York City,[4] and associated with The Nation Institute.

The Nation has news bureaus in Washington, D.C., London, and South Africa, with departments covering architecture, art, corporations, defense, environment, films, legal affairs, music, peace and disarmament, poetry, and the United Nations. Circulation peaked at 187,000 in 2006 but by 2010 had dropped to 145,000 in print, although digital subscriptions had risen to over 15,000.[5]



1798 – As a result of the XYZ Affair, the US Congress rescinds the Treaty of Alliance with France sparking the “Quasi-War”.

The XYZ Affair was a political and diplomatic episode in 1797 and 1798, early in the presidency of John Adams, involving a confrontation between the United States and Republican France that led to the Quasi-War. The name derives from the substitution of the letters X, Y and Z for the names of French diplomats Jean Conrad Hottinguer (X), Pierre Bellamy (Y), and Lucien Hauteval (Z) in documents released by the Adams administration.

An American diplomatic commission was sent to France in July 1797 to negotiate a solution to problems that were threatening to break out into war. The diplomats, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, John Marshall, and Elbridge Gerry, were approached through informal channels by agents of the French foreign minister, Talleyrand, who demanded bribes and a loan before formal negotiations could begin. Although such demands were not uncommon in mainland European diplomacy of the time, the Americans were offended by them, and eventually left France without ever engaging in formal negotiations. Gerry, seeking to avoid all-out war, remained for several months after the other two commissioners left. His exchanges with Talleyrand laid groundwork for the eventual end to diplomatic and military hostilities.

The failure of the commission caused a political firestorm in the United States when the commission’s dispatches were published. It led to the undeclared Quasi-War (1798–1800). Federalists, who controlled both houses of Congress and held the presidency, took advantage of the national anger to build up the nation’s military. They also attacked the Democratic-Republicans for their pro-French stance, and Elbridge Gerry (a nonpartisan at the time) for what they saw as his role in the commission’s failure.


Born On This Day

1912 – Molly Yard, American feminist (d. 2005)
Mary Alexander “Molly” Yard (July 6, 1912 – September 21, 2005) was an American feminist of the late 20th century who was an assistant to First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, and later a U.S. administrator, social activist and feminist, who served as National Organization for Women (NOW)’s eighth president from 1987 to 1991 and was a link between first and second-wave feminism.

Early life

She was born in Chengdu, Sichuan province, China, the daughter of Methodist missionaries. She graduated in 1933 from Swarthmore College, a coeducational college that was also the alma mater of Alice Paul. While at Swarthmore, she led a successful drive to eliminate the systematic sorority bigotry in place there after a Jewish fellow student had been denied admission to her sorority, Kappa Alpha Theta. In 1938 she married Sylvester Garrett, a union that lasted until his death in 1996.

Early career and politics
She became active in Democratic Party politics, and in the late 1940s and early 1950s worked with the Clark-Dilworth team to unseat the entrenched city machine in Philadelphia. Two years later, she worked in Helen Gahagan Douglas’ unsuccessful campaign for the U.S. Senate against second-year Congressman Richard Nixon’s effective campaign attacks on Gahagan Douglas in California.

She moved to Pittsburgh in 1953, where she worked in the gubernatorial campaign of Mayor David L. Lawrence in 1958, led the Western Pennsylvania presidential campaigns of John F. Kennedy in 1960 and George McGovern in 1972, led the unsuccessful campaign to get NAACP President Byrd Brown the Democratic nomination to Congress, and was co-chair with Mayor Joseph M. Barr of the unsuccessful U.S. Senate campaign of Jeanette Reibman in 1976.

She made an unsuccessful run for the state legislature as a candidate from Pittsburgh’s Ward 14 in 1964.

In addition to her political work, she helped found Americans for Democratic Action (ADA), America’s oldest independent liberal lobbying organization, and the Pittsburgh’s 14th Ward Independent Democratic Club. She was also the organization secretary and national chairwoman of the American Student Union.

Activities in the National Organization for Women

She became active in NOW while a resident of the Squirrel Hill neighborhood of Pittsburgh in 1974, and joined the national staff in 1978 during the nearly successful campaign to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), serving as a lobbyist in Washington, D.C. She raised more than $1 million in less than six months for that drive.

A prime architect of NOW’s political and legislative agenda, she was a senior staff member of the NOW Political Action Committee from 1978 to 1984. As NOW’s political director from 1985 to 1987, she was instrumental in the successful 1986 campaign to defeat pro-life referendums in Arkansas, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Oregon.

In April 1989, she helped to carry the banner for the March for Women’s Equality / Women’s Lives, which drew 600,000 marchers to Washington in support of abortion rights and the ERA.

She defeated Noreen Connell in the 1987 NOW presidential election. On taking office, she vowed to make the organization more visible and work to defeat President Reagan’s nomination of Judge Robert H. Bork to the U.S. Supreme Court, which was ultimately rejected by the U.S. Senate.

The membership of NOW grew by 110,000 during the years of her presidency and its annual budget increased 70 percent, to more than $10 million.

As NOW president, she opposed U.S. involvement in the Persian Gulf War, saying Americans should not be fighting for “clan-run monarchies” in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia that denied women’s rights.

Also in 1991, she was honored in Paris by the French Alliance of Women for Democratization for her pioneering work in reproductive rights; she had been a leader in the effort to get Paris-based manufacturer Roussel Uclaf to make the so-called “French abortion pill” (or “morning-after” pill(RU-486) available in the United States.

She received the Feminist Majority Foundation’s lifetime achievement award for “tireless work for women’s rights, for women and girls in sports, for the Equal Rights Amendment for Women, for civil rights for all Americans, for her championing of the trade union movement, and her devotion to world peace and non-violence.”

She died peacefully in her sleep at age 93 at a nursing home in suburban Pittsburgh on September 20, 2005.


1905 – Marie-Louise Dubreil-Jacotin, French mathematician (d. 1972)

Marie-Louise Dubreil-Jacotin (7 July 1905 – 19 October 1972) was a French mathematician, the second woman to obtain a doctorate in pure mathematics in France, the first woman to become a full professor of mathematics in France, and an expert on fluid mechanics and abstract algebra.

Early life and education
Marie-Louise Jacotin was the daughter of a lawyer for a French bank, and the grand-daughter (through her mother) of a glassblower from a family of Greek origin. Her mathematics teacher at the lycée was a sister of mathematician Élie Cartan, and after passing the baccalaureate she was allowed (through the intervention of a friend’s father, the head of the institution) to continue studying mathematics at the Collège de Chaptal. On her second attempt, she placed second in the entrance examination for the École Normale Supérieure in 1926 (tied with Claude Chevalley), but by a ministerial decree was moved down to 21st position. After the intervention of Fernand Hauser, the editor of the Journal of the ENS, she was admitted to the school. Her teachers there included Henri Lebesgue and Jacques Hadamard, and she finished her studies in 1929.[1][2][2][3]

With the encouragement of ENS director Ernest Vessiot she traveled to Oslo to work with Vilhelm Bjerknes, under whose influence she became interested in the mathematics of waves and the work of Tullio Levi-Civita in this subject. She returned to Paris in 1930, married another mathematician, Paul Dubreil, and joined him on another tour of the mathematics centers of Germany and Italy, including a visit with Levi-Civita. The Dubreils returned to France again in 1931.[1][2][3]

Career and research
While her husband taught at Lille, Dubreil-Jacotin continued her research, finishing a doctorate in 1934 concerning the existence of infinitely many different waves in ideal liquids, under the supervision of Henri Villat.[2][3][4] Before her, the only women to obtain doctorates in mathematics in France were Marie Charpentier in 1931 (also in pure mathematics) and Edmée Chandon in 1930 (in astronomy and geodesy).[1]

Following her husband, she moved to Nancy, but was unable to obtain a faculty position there herself because that was viewed as nepotism; instead, she became a research assistant at the University of Rennes. She was promoted to a teaching position in 1938, and became an assistant professor at the University of Lyon in 1939, while also continuing to teach at Rennes. In 1943 she became a full professor at the University of Poitiers, the first woman to become a full professor of mathematics in France, and in 1955 she was given a chair there in differential and integral calculus. In 1956 she moved to the University of Paris and after the university split she held a professorship at Pierre and Marie Curie University.[2][3][5]

In the 1950s, motivated by the study of averaging operators for turbulence, Dubreil-Jacotin’s interests turned towards abstract algebra, and she later performed research in semigroups and graded algebraic structures. She was the author of two textbooks, one on lattice theory and the other on abstract algebra. As well as her technical publications, Jacotin was the author of a work in the history of mathematics, Portraits of women mathematicians.[3]

Rue Marie-Louise-Dubreil-Jacotin, a street in the 13th arrondissement of Paris within Paris Diderot University, is named after her,[1] and the University of Poitiers also has a street with the same name.[6] In semigroup theory, the Dubreil-Jacotin semigroups are also named after her,[7] as is the Dubreil-Jacotin–Long equation, “the standard model for internal gravity waves” in fluid mechanics.[8]


By Reuters: Brazilian musician João Gilberto, founder of bossa nova, dies in Rio The Grammy-winning artist was instrumental in popularizing the bossa nova music style around the world.

SAO PAULO – Brazilian musician João Gilberto, 88, who developed bossa nova music and helped turn the style into a worldwide craze, died on Saturday afternoon in his house in Rio de Janeiro, relatives confirmed through messages in social media.

His son Marcelo Gilberto said on Facebook “his fight was noble and he tried to maintain dignity”. His daughter in law wrote: “Deep sadness. All he wanted was to be with us and to play with his granddaughter”.

João Gilberto Prado Pereira de Oliveira, known as João Gilberto (Portuguese: [ʒuˈɐ̃w ʒiwˈbɛʁtu]; 10 June 1931 – 6 July 2019), was a Brazilian singer, songwriter, and guitarist. He pioneered the musical genre of bossa nova in the late 1950s, as such, he is sometimes known as the “father of bossa nova”.[1][2][3]

The Awesomer: Mountain of Hell Winning Run and more ->

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Anne Truitt wrote in her uncommonly insightful diary: “I have always been mystified by the speed with which people condemn one another… This seems to give them intense pleasure. Whenever I am tempted by this pleasure, I remember some impulse in myself that could have led me, granted certain circumstances, into the condemned position. This has caused me to distrust the part of myself that would relish self-righteousness.”
Anchorage Pioneer Memories
Begins at 1:58






FYI July 05, 2019

On This Day

1937 – Spam, the luncheon meat, is introduced into the market by the Hormel Foods Corporation.
Spam (stylized as SPAM) is a brand of canned cooked pork made by Hormel Foods Corporation, based out of Minnesota. It was first introduced in 1937 and gained popularity worldwide after its use during World War II.[1] By 2003, Spam was sold in 41 countries on six continents and trademarked in over 100 countries (not including the Middle East and North Africa).[2] Spam’s basic ingredients are pork with ham meat added, salt, water, modified potato starch (as a binder), sugar, and sodium nitrite (as a preservative). Natural gelatin is formed during cooking in its tins on the production line.[3] Many have raised concerns over Spam’s nutritional attributes, in large part due to its high content of fat, sodium, and preservatives.[4]

By the early 1970s the name “spam” had become a genericized trademark used to describe any canned meat product containing pork, such as pork luncheon meat. With an expansion in communications technology, it became the subject of urban legends about mystery meat and made other appearances in pop culture.[5] The most notable was a Monty Python sketch which led to its name being borrowed for unsolicited electronic messages, especially email.[6]



Born On This Day

1888 – Louise Freeland Jenkins, American astronomer and academic (d. 1970)
Louise Freeland Jenkins (July 5, 1888 – May 9, 1970) was an American astronomer who compiled a valuable catalogue of stars within 10 parsecs of the sun, as well as editing the 3rd edition of the Yale Bright Star Catalogue.

She was born in Fitchburg, Massachusetts. In 1911 she graduated from Mount Holyoke College, then she received a Master’s degree in astronomy in 1917 from the same institution. From 1913 to 1915 she worked at the Allegheny Observatory in Pittsburgh. Afterwards, she was an instructor at Mount Holyoke from 1915 to 1920.[1]

About 1921 she moved to Japan, becoming a teacher at the Women’s Christian College, a missionary school. She returned to the United States in 1925 after her father died. A year later she returned to teach at a school in Himeji. (Hinomoto Gakuen girl’s high school.)

In 1932 she returned to the US and became a staff member at Yale University Observatory. She was co-editor of the Astronomical Journal starting in 1942, and continued in this post until 1958. She would return to visit Japan later in her life.

She was noted for her research into the trigonometric parallax of nearby stars. She also studied variable stars.


Frank Schlesinger and Louise F. Jenkins, Yale Bright Star Catalogue, 2nd edition.
Louise F. Jenkins, General Catalogue of Trigonometric Stellar Parallaxes, Yale University Observatory, New Haven, Connecticut, 1952. Supplement 1963.


The crater Jenkins on the Moon is named after her.



By Rachel Wilkinson: The Father of the Emoticon Chases His Great White Whale Dr. Scott Fahlman invented a playful keyboard shortcut that is now used more than six billion times a day. But he hopes to be remembered for something a bit more substantial than a smiley face.

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FYI July 04, 2019

On This Day

1634 – The city of Trois-Rivières is founded in New France (now Quebec, Canada).
Trois-Rivières (French pronunciation: ​[tʁwɑ.ʁi.vjɛʁ], local pronunciation: [tʁwɔ.ʁi.vjaɛ̯ʁ] (About this soundlisten)) is a city in the Mauricie administrative region of Quebec, Canada, at the confluence of the Saint-Maurice and Saint Lawrence rivers, on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River across from the city of Bécancour. It is part of the densely populated Quebec City–Windsor Corridor and is approximately halfway between Montreal and Quebec City. Trois-Rivières is the economic and cultural hub of the Mauricie region.[7] The settlement was founded by French colonists on July 4, 1634, as the second permanent settlement in New France,[8] after Quebec City in 1608.

The city’s name, which is French for three rivers, is named for the fact the Saint-Maurice River has three mouths at the Saint Lawrence River; it is divided by two islands in the river. Historically, in the English language this city was known as Three Rivers. Since the late 20th century, when there has been more recognition of Quebec and French speakers, and French was made an official language, the city is generally referred to as Trois-Rivières in both English and French. The anglicized name still appears in many areas of the town (e.g., the city’s Three Rivers Academy), bearing witness to the influence of English settlers in the town. The city’s inhabitants are known as Trifluviens (Trifluvians).

Trois-Rivières is also the name of a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality (TE) of Quebec, coextensive with the city of Trois-Rivières. Its geographical code is 371. Together with the regional county municipality of Les Chenaux, it forms the census division (CD) of Francheville (37). The municipalities within Les Chenaux and the former municipalities that were amalgamated into Trois-Rivières formerly constituted the regional county municipality of Francheville. Trois-Rivières is the seat of the judicial district of the same name.[9] The Trois-Rivières metropolitan area also includes the city of Bécancour, which is situated on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River across the Laviolette Bridge.



Born On This Day

1898 – Pilar Barbosa, Puerto Rican-American historian and activist (d. 1997)
Dr. Pilar Barbosa de Rosario [note 1] (July 4, 1898 – January 22, 1997) was an educator, historian and political activist. She was the first female Official Historian of Puerto Rico.[1]

Early years
Barbosa, born in Bayamón, Puerto Rico, was one of twelve children of Jose Celso Barbosa, also known as the “Father of the Puerto Rican Statehood Movement”. Her father was a member of the Puerto Rican Senate from 1917-1921. Barbosa received her primary and secondary education in Bayamon and was exposed to politics at a young age. As a teenager she enjoyed teaching others. After she graduated from high school, she enrolled in the University of Puerto Rico.[2] She was married to José Ezequiel Rosario but lived many decades as a widow.

Educator and political activist

Barbosa earned her bachelor’s degree in Education and then went on to Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts where she earned her Doctorate Degree in History. In 1921, she returned to the island and was offered the position of history professor at the College of Liberal Arts of the University of Puerto Rico, thus becoming the first woman to teach in that institution.[2]

In 1929, she established the Department of History and Social Sciences in her Alma Mater and was its director until 1943. She continued to teach at the university until 1967, the year she retired. Barbosa was also very active in her father’s cause and served as political advisor and mentor to many of the politicians who shared her fathers political goals, most notably those from the pro-statehood New Progressive Party, including former Resident Commissioner and Governor from 2009 to 2013 Luis Fortuño and former Senate of Puerto Rico President and 2009-2013 Puerto Rico Secretary of State Kenneth McClintock.[3] Her goal for the party was that it become known as the party of statehood and social justice.[2][4]

Awards and recognitions

Among the many awards and recognitions bestowed upon her are the following:

Professor Emerita – University of Puerto Rico – 1973
Doctor of Letters, Honoris Causa – Interamerican University – 1975
Outstanding Leadership Award – President Ronald W. Reagan – 1984
Golden Book – Exchange Club of Rio Piedras

Barbosa was also a member of various organizations, including The Royal Spanish Academy of History, Dean of Puerto Rican Historians and The Academy of Arts and Sciences in Puerto Rico. In 1993, she was named by the Legislative Assembly to the position of Official Historian of Puerto Rico which was re-established that year.[2]

Written works
Among the books written by Barbosa are the following:

De Baldorioty a Barbosa: La Comision Autonomista de 1896 (From Baldorioty to Barbosa: The Autonomist Commission of 1896)
La Politica en los tiempos (Aleto Manuel F. Rossy ciudadano cabal) (Politics in the times (Aleto Manuel F. Rossy, a well-rounded citizen))
Raices del Progreso Politico Puertorriqueño (Roots of the Puerto Rican Political Progress)

Later years

Barbosa became a widow when her husband, economics professor José Ezequiel Rosario, died in 1963.

Puerto Rico Senate President Roberto Rexach Benitez and House Speaker Zaida Hernandez appointed Barbosa in 1993 as the first modern Official Historian of Puerto Rico, a post she held unter her death in 1997.

Pilar Barbosa de Rosario died on January 22, 1997 in San Juan, Puerto Rico at the age of 98 and was survived by a brother, Rafael Barbosa.[5]

On July 27, 1997, the Senate of Puerto Rico approved law #53, authored by Sen. Kenneth McClintock, a Barbosa protégé, which created “Pilar Barbosa Education Internship Program”. The program was created as a means to provide professional development training opportunities for public school practitioners and educators in Puerto Rico. The Pilar Barbosa Program serves as a catalyst for long term educational realignment using the graduates as agents of sustainable reform in the public school system.[4]

Program participants are K-12 public school teachers and administrators from Puerto Rico. Every summer, 25 participants come to Washington, D.C. to take part in a myriad of activities including workshops, tours, lectures and group assignments that focus on U.S. education trends and policies in the context of Puerto Rico, integration of technology in the curriculum, innovative curriculum design, and educational leadership. The Washington Center for Internships and Academic Seminars successfully administered the Pilar Barbosa Education Internship Program in the summers of 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009. The Washington Center provides an integrated academic and work experience to prepare participants for lives of leadership, professional achievement, and civic engagement. Nearly 298 teachers have already benefited from the program.[4]

See also
List of Puerto Ricans
History of women in Puerto Rico



By Barnini Chakraborty | Fox News: Eva Kor, Holocaust survivor, dies peacefully at age 85

Eva Mozes Kor (January 30, 1934 – July 4, 2019) was a Romanian Holocaust survivor. Along with her twin sister Miriam, Kor was subjected to human experimentation under Josef Mengele at the Auschwitz concentration camp during World War II. She lost both of her parents and two older sisters to the Holocaust; only she and Miriam survived. Kor founded the organization CANDLES (an acronym for “Children of Auschwitz Nazi Deadly Lab Experiments Survivors”) in 1984. Through the program, she located 122 other survivors of Mengele.[1]

In 1984, Kor founded CANDLES Holocaust Museum and Education Center to educate the public about eugenics, the Holocaust, and the power of forgiveness. Kor received international attention when she publicly forgave the Nazis for what had been done to her. This story was later explored in the documentary Forgiving Dr. Mengele. She authored or co-authored 6 books, and took part in numerous memorial services and projects.

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FYI July 03, 2019

On This Day

1767 – Norway’s oldest newspaper still in print, Adresseavisen, is founded and the first edition is published.
Adresseavisen (Urban East Norwegian: [ɑˈdrɛsːə.ɑˌviːsn̩]; commonly known as Adressa) is a regional newspaper published daily, except Sundays, in Trondheim, Norway.[1]

Adresseavisen is owned by Polaris Media, in which Schibsted controls 29% of the shares.

History and profile
The newspaper was first published on 3 July 1767[1][2] as Kongelig allene privilegerede Trondheims Adresse-Contoirs Efterretninger, making it the oldest Norwegian newspaper still being published. The paper was founded as a classified advertising publication.[3] The name of the newspaper was changed several times before its present name began to be used in 1927.[4] Locally it is often referred to as Adressa. The newspaper is based in Trondheim[2][5] and covers the areas of Trøndelag and Nordmøre.

Martinus Lind Nissen (1744–1795) was the founder and first editor of Adresseavisen. At his death, Nissen was succeeded by Mathias Conrad Peterson, a French-oriented revolutionary pioneering radical journalism in Norway. Later editors, however, have been more conservative. In Peterson’s age the paper was renamed Trondhjemske Tidender (roughly Trondhjem Times) and began to look more like a modern newspaper. Changing names, owners and profile several times during the 19th century, the paper was named Trondhjems Adresseavis in 1890. Its first press picture was published in 1893. During the 1920s, the paper was nearly bankrupted, but it was saved by the new editor, Harald Houge Torp, who held the position until 1969.

Adresseavisen describes itself as conservative[2] and is part of the Adresseavisen Media Group which owns several smaller local newspapers in the Trøndelag region.[3] It also owns and operates a local radio station, Radio-Adressa, and a local TV station, TV-Adressa (prior to 30 January 2006: TVTrøndelag). In addition, the company owns the local newspapers Fosna-Folket, Hitra-Frøya, Levanger-Avisa, Sør-Trøndelag, Trønderbladet and Verdalingen.[3] As of 2006 Schibsted had a share of the paper (31.7%).[2] Stocks in Adresseavisen are traded on the Oslo Stock Exchange.

Adressavisen became the first Norwegian newspaper to use computer technology in 1967. Its website was launched in 1996. Gunnarr Flikke was editor-in-chief from 1989 to 2006. Adresseavisen switched from broadsheet to tabloid format on 16 September 2006.[6]

The circulation of Adresseavisen was 87,000 copies in 2003,[7] 79,789 in 2007[8] and 61,086 in 2014.[9]

The online newspaper had an average of 155,000 daily readers in 2015.[10]

See also
List of oldest companies

Notable chief editors
This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Martinus Nissen (1767–1795)
Matthias Conrad Peterson (1795–1800)
Harald Torp (1927 – 1941, 1945 – 1969)
Jacob Skylstad (1941–1945)
Andreas Norland (1975–1977)
Kjell Einar Amdahl (1977–1996)
Gunnar Flikke (1989–2006)
Arne Blix (2007–2015)
Tor Olav Mørseth (2015–2017)
Kirsti Husby (2017 – incumbent)


Born On This Day

1860 – Charlotte Perkins Gilman, American sociologist and author (d. 1935)
Charlotte Perkins Gilman (/ˈɡɪlmən/; née Perkins; July 3, 1860 – August 17, 1935), also known as Charlotte Perkins Stetson, her first married name, was a prominent American humanist, novelist, writer of short stories, poetry, and nonfiction, and a lecturer for social reform.[1] She was a utopian feminist and served as a role model for future generations of feminists because of her unorthodox concepts and lifestyle. She has been inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame.[2] Her best remembered work today is her semi-autobiographical short story “The Yellow Wallpaper”, which she wrote after a severe bout of postpartum psychosis.

Less well known are Gilman’s views on race. To solve the so-called “Negro Problem” in the United States in the early twentieth century, Gilman suggested a system of forced labor she called “enlistment”.[3]




By Ann Schmidt: Former Chrysler CEO Lee Iacocca’s greatest accomplishments, from the Mustang to the minivan

Lido Anthony “Lee” Iacocca (/ˌaɪ.əˈkoʊkə/ EYE-ə-KOH-kə; October 15, 1924 – July 2, 2019) was an American automobile executive best known for the development of Ford Mustang and Pinto cars, while at the Ford Motor Company in the 1960s, and then later for reviving the Chrysler Corporation as its CEO during the 1980s.[1] He served as President and CEO of Chrysler from 1978 and additionally as chairman from 1979, until his retirement at the end of 1992. He was the only executive in recent times to preside over the operations of two of the Big Three automakers which he did during different tenures.[2]

Iacocca authored or co-authored several books, including Iacocca: An Autobiography (with William Novak), and Where Have All the Leaders Gone? Portfolio Magazine named Iacocca the 18th-greatest American CEO of all time.[3]


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One bullet.
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A judge is being admonished by an appeals court for saying a 16-year-old boy should get leniency after he allegedly sent a video of himself penetrating a heavily intoxicated girl with the message, “When your first time having sex was rape.”

Last year, New Jersey Superior Court Judge James Troiano denied prosecutors’ request to try the teen as an adult. He argued that the act might not be rape, but rather sexual assault and pointed out that the boy in question, identified in court documents as G.M.C., had good grades and was an Eagle Scout.

“He is clearly a candidate for not just college but probably for a good college,” the roughly 70-year-old Troiano said in the two-hour decision.


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FYI July 02, 2019

On This Day

1921 – World War I: U.S. President Warren G. Harding signs the Knox–Porter Resolution formally ending the war between the United States and Germany.
The Knox–Porter Resolution (42 Stat. 105) was a joint resolution of the United States Congress signed by President Warren G. Harding on July 2, 1921, officially ending United States involvement in World War I. The documents were signed on the estate of Joseph Sherman Frelinghuysen, Sr. in Raritan, New Jersey.[1][2]

On November 19, 1919, and again on March 19, 1920, the United States Senate voted against ratifying the Treaty of Versailles, forestalling American participation in the League of Nations. In a speech on April 12, 1921, before a special congressional session, President Harding reconfirmed American opposition to the League of Nations, calling on Congress to pass a peace resolution independent of the League. Senator Philander C. Knox of Pennsylvania introduced a resolution the following day, and it passed the Senate in late April.[3]

The United States House of Representatives had its own slightly different resolution introduced by Representative Stephen G. Porter, Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs. Passage of the House resolution was delayed in deference to negotiations between the Allies and Germany over a reparations settlement. In late June the House and Senate reconciled their differences, and the Knox–Porter joint resolution passed Congress on July 1.

The next day, Harding signed the resolution at the Frelinghuysen estate in Raritan, New Jersey.[3] Harding and Senator Frehlinghuysen were playing golf at the Raritan Valley Country Club across the street when word arrived that a courier was on his way from the Raritan train station, having traveled from Washington with the signing copy of the resolution. Harding walked back to the estate and signed the document, and then returned to complete his round of golf. The Frelinghuysen estate was destroyed by fire in the 1950’s, and the site is now occupied by a shopping center and parking lot, with a small plaque marking the place where the home once stood.[4][5]

The article in the next day’s New York Times concerning the signing started with the words, “War with Germany ended as it began, by Congressional declaration and Executive signature on American soil.”[6]


Born On This Day

1916 – Zélia Gattai, Brazilian author and photographer (d. 2008)
Zélia Gattai Amado de Faria (July 2, 1916 – May 17, 2008) was a Brazilian photographer, memoirist, novelist and author of children’s literature, as well as a member of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.[1] Gattai has written 14 different literary works, including children’s books and her own personal memoirs that have been widely published.[2]




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FYI July 01, 2019

On This Day

1874 – The Sholes and Glidden typewriter, the first commercially successful typewriter, goes on sale.

The Sholes and Glidden typewriter (also known as the Remington No. 1) was the first commercially successful typewriter. Principally designed by the American inventor Christopher Latham Sholes, it was developed with the assistance of fellow printer Samuel W. Soule and amateur mechanic Carlos S. Glidden. Work began in 1867, but Soule left the enterprise shortly thereafter, replaced by James Densmore, who provided financial backing and the driving force behind the machine’s continued development. After several short-lived attempts to manufacture the device, the machine was acquired by E. Remington and Sons in early 1873. An arms manufacturer seeking to diversify, Remington further refined the typewriter before finally placing it on the market on July 1, 1874.

During its development, the typewriter evolved from a crude curiosity into a practical device, the basic form of which became the industry standard. The machine incorporated elements which became fundamental to typewriter design, including a cylindrical platen and a four-rowed QWERTY keyboard. Several design deficiencies remained, however. The Sholes and Glidden could print only upper-case letters—an issue remedied in its successor, the Remington No. 2—and was a “blind writer”, meaning the typist could not see what was being written as it was entered.

Initially, the typewriter received an unenthusiastic reception from the public. Lack of an established market, high cost, and the need for trained operators slowed its adoption. Additionally, recipients of typewritten messages found the mechanical, all upper-case writing to be impersonal and even insulting. The new communication technologies and expanding businesses of the late 19th century, however, had created a need for expedient, legible correspondence, and so the Sholes and Glidden and its contemporaries soon became common office fixtures. The typewriter is credited with assisting the entrance of women into the clerical workplace, as many were hired to operate the new devices.



Born On This Day

1311 – Liu Bowen, Chinese military strategist, statesman and poet (d. 1375)
Liu Ji (July 1, 1311 — May 16, 1375),[1][2] courtesy name Bowen, better known as Liu Bowen, was a Chinese military strategist, philosopher, statesman and poet who lived in the late Yuan and early Ming dynasties. He was born in Qingtian County (present-day Wencheng County, Wenzhou, Zhejiang). He served as a key advisor to Zhu Yuanzhang (the Hongwu Emperor), the founder of the Ming dynasty, in the latter’s struggle to overthrow the Yuan dynasty and unify China under his rule.[3] Liu is also known for his prophecies and has been described as the “Divine Chinese Nostradamus”.[3] He and Jiao Yu co-edited the military treatise known as the Huolongjing (Fire Dragon Manual).




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FYI June 30, 2019

On This Day

1937 – The world’s first emergency telephone number, 999, is introduced in London.

First introduced in the London area on 30 June 1937, the UK’s 999 number is the world’s oldest emergency call telephone service. The system was introduced following a fire in a house in Wimpole Street on 10 November 1935, in which five women were killed.[4] A neighbour had tried to telephone the fire brigade and was so outraged at being held in a queue by the Welbeck telephone exchange that he wrote a letter to the editor of The Times,[5] which prompted a government inquiry.[4]

The initial scheme covered a 12-mile (19 km) radius around Oxford Circus[6] and the public were advised only to use it in ongoing emergency if “for instance, the man in the flat next to yours is murdering his wife or you have seen a heavily masked cat burglar peering round the stack pipe of the local bank building.”[7] The first arrest – for burglary – took place a week later and the scheme was extended to major cities after World War II and then to the whole UK in 1976.[7]

The 9-9-9 format was chosen based on the ‘button A’ and ‘button B’ design of pre-payment coin-operated public payphones in wide use (first introduced in 1925) which could be easily modified to allow free use of the 9 digit on the rotary dial in addition to the 0 digit (then used to call the operator), without allowing free use of numbers involving other digits; other combinations of free call 9 and 0 were later used for more purposes, including multiples of 9 (to access exchanges before STD came into use) as a fail-safe for attempted emergency calls, e.g. 9 or 99, reaching at least an operator.[8]
US style rotary phone dial

As it happens, the choice of 999 was fortunate for accessibility reasons, compared with e.g. lower numbers, because in the dark or in dense smoke 999 could be dialled by placing a finger one hole away from the dial stop (see the articles on rotary dial and GPO telephones) and rotating the dial to the full extent three times. This enables all users including the visually impaired to easily dial the emergency number. It is also the case that it is relatively easy for 111, and other low-number sequences, to be called accidentally, including when transmission wires making momentary contact produce a pulse similar to dialling (e.g. when overhead cables touch in high winds).[9][10]

Hoax calls and improper use are a problem. For these reasons, there are frequent public information campaigns in the UK on the correct use of the 999 system.

Alternative three-digit numbers for non-emergency calls have also been introduced in recent years. 101 was introduced for non-urgent calls in England and Wales[11] The scheme was extended to Scotland[12] and Northern Ireland.[13]

Trials of 111 as a number to access health services in the UK for urgent but not life-threatening cases began in England in 2010. The main roll-out occurred from 2011 to 2013, with a number of delays, and was completed by February 2014.[citation needed] In Scotland, the NHS24 service moved from 0845 424 2424 to 111 on 29 April 2014.[14][15] NHS Direct Wales continues to use 0845 46 47 despite it costing up to 57p per minute from mobile phones.

In 2008–2009, Nottinghamshire Police ran a successful pilot of Pegasus, a database containing the details of people with physical and learning disabilities or mental health problems, who have registered with the force because their disabilities make it difficult for them to give spoken details when calling the police. Those registered on the database are issued with a personal identification number (PIN) that can be used in two ways. By phone – either 999 or the force’s non-emergency 101 number can be used – once a person is put through to the control room, they only need to say “Pegasus” and their PIN. Their details can then be retrieved from the database and the caller can quickly get on with explaining why they have called. In person – the Pegasus PIN can be told or shown to a police officer. Pegasus is also used by the City of London Police, Dyfed Powys Police, Surrey Police & Lincolnshire Police.

The introduction of push-button (landline, cordless and mobile) telephones has produced a problem for UK emergency services,[16] due to the ease of same-digit sequences being accidentally keyed, e.g., by objects in the same pocket as a telephone (termed ‘pocket dialling’) or by children playing with a telephone. This problem is less of a concern with emergency numbers that use two different digits, such as 112 and 911 although on landlines 112 suffers much of the same risk of false generation as the 111 code which was considered and rejected when the original choice of 999 was made.

The pan-European 112 code was introduced in the UK in April 1995[17] with little publicity. It connects to existing 999 circuits. The GSM standard mandates that the user of a GSM phone can dial 112 without unlocking the keypad, a feature that can save time in emergencies but that also causes some accidental calls. All mobile telephones will make emergency calls with the keypad locked. Originally a valid SIM card was not required to make a 999/112 emergency call in the UK. However, as a result of high numbers of untraceable hoax calls being made, this feature is now blocked by all UK networks. Most UK mobile telephone handsets will dial 999/112 without a SIM inserted (or with a locked/invalid SIM), but the call will not be connected. Following the blocking of SIM-less calls, in 2009 the UK networks introduced emergency call roaming. This allows a user with a valid SIM of a UK network to make emergency calls on any network for which they have coverage.

Silent solution 55 is the name given to the initiative that allows people to call 999 when they aren’t able to speak. If there is no answer, the operator will then ask you to cough, or make another audible sign that you’re in need of police assistance. If you’re in too much danger to make any sound at all, the call will be put through to an automated system which asks the caller to press 55 if they’re in danger.[18]



Born On This Day

1912 – María Luisa Dehesa Gómez Farías, Mexican architect (d. 2009)
María Luisa Dehesa Gómez Farías (30 June 1912 – 11 March 2009) was a Mexican architect who worked for close to 50 years in the Federal District of Mexico City, primarily designing single-family homes and apartment buildings.[1] She was the first Mexican woman to graduate with a degree in architecture.

María Luisa Dehesa Gómez Farías was born on 30 June 1912[2] in Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico to Ramón Dehesa[3] and María Luisa Gómez Farías y Canedo, daughter of the Mexican Minister in London, Benito Gómez Farías [es]. She was the granddaughter of Teodoro A. Dehesa Méndez on her paternal side and great-granddaughter of Valentín Gómez Farías on her maternal side.[2]

In 1933 she enrolled at the Academia de San Carlos (the National School of Architecture) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico.[3] In her class of 113 students, only five were women[1] and they were required to study in a separate workshop from the men.[3] She graduated in 1937, the first Mexican woman to graduate with a degree in architecture. Her thesis, which won honorable mention from the jurors,[3] was entitled Artillery Barracks Type. It was accepted in 1939 and she attained her professional designation.[4]

After she finished school, Dehesa married Manuel Millán and they subsequently had four children.[2] She joined the Public Works Department in Mexico City and served for nearly 50 years in various divisions,[1] primarily designing single-family homes and apartment buildings.[2] In 1974, she was announced as a joint winner of the Ruth Rivera Prize, together with the first Mexican female civil engineer, Concepción Mendizábal Mendoza.[5] In 2006, the College of Architects of Mexico City, honored her for her contributions.[3]

Notimex published Dehesa’s memoirs, entitled Los Años Valientes, with illustrations by her daughter Elizabeth Millán de Guerra, a graphic designer.[2] Dehesa died in Mexico City in 2009.[6]



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FYI June 29, 2019

On This Day

1927 – The Bird of Paradise, a U.S. Army Air Corps Fokker tri-motor, completes the first transpacific flight, from the mainland United States to Hawaii.

The Bird of Paradise was a military airplane used by the United States Army Air Corps in 1927 to experiment with the application of radio beacon aids in air navigation. On June 28–29, 1927, the Bird of Paradise, crewed by 1st Lt. Lester J. Maitland and 1st Lt. Albert F. Hegenberger, completed the first flight over the Pacific Ocean from the mainland, California, to Hawaii. For this feat the crew received the Mackay Trophy.

The Bird of Paradise was one of three Atlantic-Fokker C-2 tri-motor transport aircraft developed for the Air Corps from the civilian Fokker F.VIIa/3m airliner design. Its two-ton carrying capacity gave it the ability to carry sufficient fuel for the 2,500 miles (4,000 km) flight and its three motors provided an acceptable safety factor in the event one engine failed. Moreover, although modified for the long distance flight, the C-2 was a widely used standard design, demonstrating the practicality of flying long distances.[1]

Although the recognition accorded Maitland and Hegenberger was less in comparison with the extensive adulation given to Charles Lindbergh for his transatlantic flight only five weeks earlier, their feat was arguably more significant from a navigational standpoint.[2]



Born On This Day

1858 – Julia Lathrop, American activist and politician (d. 1932)

Julia Clifford Lathrop (June 29, 1858 – April 15, 1932) was an American social reformer in the area of education, social policy, and children’s welfare. As director of the United States Children’s Bureau from 1912 to 1922, she was the first woman ever to head a United States federal bureau.[1


Julia Clifford Lathrop was born in Rockford, Illinois. Julia’s father, a lawyer and personal friend of Abraham Lincoln, helped establish the Republican Party and served in the state legislature (1856–57) and Congress (1877–79). Her mother was a suffragist active in women’s rights activities in Rockford and a graduate of the first class of Rockford Female Seminary.

Lathrop attended Rockford Female Seminary where she met Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr. After one year, she transferred to Vassar College, developing her own multidisciplinary studies in statistics, institutional history, sociology, and community organization and graduated in 1880.[2] Afterwards, she worked in her father’s law office first as a secretary and then studying the law for herself.

Work in Chicago
In 1890, Lathrop moved to Chicago where she joined Jane Addams, Ellen Gates Starr, Alzina Stevens, Edith Abbott, Grace Abbott, Florence Kelley, Mary McDowell, Alice Hamilton, Sophonisba Breckinridge and other social reformers at Hull House.[3] Lathrop ran a discussion group called the Plato Club in the early days of the House. The women at Hull House actively campaigned to persuade Congress to pass legislation to protect children. During the depression years of the early ’90s Lathrop served as a volunteer investigator of relief applicants, visiting homes to document the needs of the families.

In 1893, Lathrop was appointed as the first ever woman member of the Illinois State Board of Charities, beginning her lifelong work in civil service reform: advocating for the training of professional social workers and standardizing employment procedures. This would lead to opening the labor market for educated women as well as improving social services in Progressive Era cities and towns. Over the next few years she helped introduce reforms such as the appointment of female doctors in state hospitals and the removal of the insane from the state workhouses.

Director of United States Children’s Bureau
Reacting to pressure from Progressive women reformers for the appointment of a woman for the newly created Children’s Bureau, in 1912, President William Taft appointed Lathrop as the first bureau chief.[4] Over the next nine years Lathrop directed research into child labor, infant mortality, maternal mortality, juvenile delinquency, mothers’ pensions and illegitimacy.[5]

The Children’s Bureau under Lathrop (1912–21) (known as “America’s First Official Mother”) and her successors became an administrative unit that not only created child welfare policy but also led its implementation. For many conservative women, the Bureau’s focus on maternal and child welfare gave them a role in politics for the first time—something that the suffrage or women’s rights movements had not offered them. The Bureau expanded its budget and personnel to focus on a scientific approach to motherhood in order to reduce infant and maternal mortality, improve child health and advocate for trained care for children with disabilities. Lathrop modeled the Children’s Bureau investigations from the work she did while at Hull-House. The Bureau also lobbied to abolish child labor. Scientific language became critical to the reform efforts such as the baby-saving campaigns in towns with large working class and immigrant populations where the middle class maternalists battled contemporary beliefs in the inevitability of high infant mortality rates. “Mother-work in the community”[1]:34 meant that women educated in the latest scientific theories about children’s health and safety would lead the movement for child welfare reform.

In her first annual report for the agency, Lathrop described the plans for expansion: promotion of birth registration, infant mortality field studies, production of instructional pamphlets and reports, expand the study of child labor laws, explore issues regarding mothers’ pensions, and study the status of “dependent, defective, and delinquent children.”[5]:52 Lathrop wrote in 1914: “Work for infant welfare is coming to be regarded as more than a philanthropy or an expression of good will. It is a profoundly important public concern which tests the public spirit and the democracy of a community.”[1]:74

Unlike the National Congress of Mothers, Lathrop’s leadership of the Children’s Bureau relied on her belief in the New Woman’s right to freedom for individual development and opportunities, including a college degree of equal merit to men’s and a decent job. However, Lathrop was careful to insist that motherhood was “the most important calling in the world”[1]:81 and to deny that women should have career ambitions. This way Lathrop could avoid controversy even while she built public support for the new agency.

In 1917, the American Association for Labor Legislation proposed a national health insurance act that included a provision for weekly cash allocations for pregnant women. Lathrop went against the private insurance industry and the American Medical Association to support this proposal, believing that the maternity benefit systems already in place in Germany, England and France left too many women and their babies uninsured. Lathrop argued in an address before the American Public Health Association’s 1918 meeting in Chicago that U.S. leaders needed to address the reasons for poverty in order to address children’s health needs—that high infant mortality among the poor and working class in American cities was not just due to ignorance or laziness. Lathrop asked: “Which is the more safe and sane conclusion! That 88 per cent of all these fathers were incorrigibly indolent or below normal mentally, or that sound public economy demands an irreducible minimum living standard to be sustained by a minimum wage and other such expedients as may be developed in a determined effort to give every child a fair chance?”[5]:63

The attitude of most of the staff in the Children’s Bureau and other government agencies however, was that women—especially with children—should not work outside of the home even if impoverished. Any connections between children’s health and such issues as expansion of workers’ insurance, minimum wage or sanitation systems lost credence. The popular strategy remained focused on “Americanizing” immigrant workers and teaching white mothers how to take care of babies. It is important to note that the Bureau chose not to address the horrifyingly high mortality rates among babies in families of color. In the South, much of the public health campaigns were undertaken by African-American, Hispanic or black clubwomen working in their own segregated communities.[6][7][8]

In 1921 the Sheppard-Towner Maternity and Infancy Act became the first federally funded social welfare measure in the United States.[3] The law provided federal matching grants to the states for prenatal and child health clinics, visiting nurses for expectant and new mothers, distribution of information on nutrition and hygiene as well as midwife training. Contrary to Lathrop’s original ideas, the final version of the law did not provide any financial aid or medical care.

The first 30 years of the twentieth century marked a transition between traditional social medicine that included the use of relatives or local midwives and the rise of a modern medical management of childbirth and childrearing by experts outside the family and home.[1]:33 However, as the federal bureaucracy blossomed in the years after World War II, the only agency focused solely on children lost its power and influence.

Juvenile Justice

As early as 1898, at the third Annual Illinois Conference on Charities, organized by the philanthropist Lucy Flower and Julia Lathrop, reformers called for a separate system of courts for children.[9] Lathrop’s experience at the Hull House and as a Charities Board member had given her firsthand knowledge of the conditions for children in county poorhouses and jails. Prior to the reform era, children over the age of seven were imprisoned with adults. Lathrop helped found the country’s first juvenile court in 1899, and the Chicago Woman’s Club established the Juvenile Court Committee (electing Lathrop as its first president in 1903) to pay the salaries of fifteen probation officers and run a detention home located at 625 West Adams Street.

By 1904, Julia Lathrop helped organize and then became the president of the Juvenile Psychopathic Institute. The director was psychologist William A. Healy who led scientific studies of the physical and mental health of the children, shifting away from the belief that environment alone was responsible for a child’s delinquent behavior. Together with members of the National Congress of Mothers Lathrop worked to organize a juvenile court movement nationally with justice law reformers such as Judge Ben Lindsey (who later chaired the National Conference of Charities and Correction’s juvenile court subcommittee).[10]

Later life

In 1918, President Woodrow Wilson sent Lathrop and Grace Abbott to represent the U.S. at an international conference on child welfare. There Lathrop consulted on the formation of a childcare bureau in the newly formed country of Czechoslovakia. After her retirement from the Children’s Bureau in 1922, Lathrop became president of the Illinois League of Women Voters. She also helped form the National Committee of Mental Illness. In 1925 Lathrop represented the U.S. in Switzerland at the Child Welfare Committee established by the League of Nations.

There is a residence hall at Rockford University and an elementary school in Rockford named after Lathrop.[11] An intermediate school in Santa Ana, California also bears her name. Although a residence hall at Vassar College is named for Dr. Edward Lathrop, a charter trustee, he was not Julia’s father. Julia’s father was William Lathrop, a lawyer and (briefly) a congressman, from Rockford, IL. In 1938, the Chicago Housing Authority opened the Julia C. Lathrop Homes, a public housing project in the North Center neighborhood on Chicago’s north side.

See also



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