Category: FYI

FYI

FYI May 15, 2019

On This Day

 
 
1618 – Johannes Kepler confirms his previously rejected discovery of the third law of planetary motion (he first discovered it on March 8 but soon rejected the idea after some initial calculations were made).

In astronomy, Kepler’s laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws describing the motion of planets around the Sun.

The orbit of a planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci.
A line segment joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.[1]
The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit.

Most planetary orbits are nearly circular, and careful observation and calculation are required in order to establish that they are not perfectly circular. Calculations of the orbit of Mars[2] indicated an elliptical orbit. From this, Johannes Kepler inferred that other bodies in the Solar System, including those farther away from the Sun, also have elliptical orbits.

Kepler’s work (published between 1609 and 1619) improved the heliocentric theory of Nicolaus Copernicus, explaining how the planets’ speeds varied, and using elliptical orbits rather than circular orbits with epicycles.[3]

Isaac Newton showed in 1687 that relationships like Kepler’s would apply in the Solar System to a good approximation, as a consequence of his own laws of motion and law of universal gravitation.

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Born On This Day

 
 
1845 – Élie Metchnikoff, Russian zoologist (d. 1916)
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (Russian: Илья́ Ильи́ч Ме́чников, also written as Élie Metchnikoff; 15 May [O.S. 3 May] 1845 – 15 July 1916)[1][note 1] was a Russian[2] zoologist best known for his pioneering research in immunology.[3][4][5]

In particular, he is credited with the discovery of phagocytes (macrophages) in 1882. This discovery turned out to be the major defence mechanism in innate immunity.[6] He and Paul Ehrlich were jointly awarded the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine “in recognition of their work on immunity”.[7] He is also credited by some sources with coining the term gerontology in 1903, for the emerging study of aging and longevity.[8][9] He established the concept of cell-mediated immunity, while Ehrlich established the concept of humoral immunity. Their works are regarded as the foundation of the science of immunology.[10] In immunology, he is given an epithet the “father of natural immunity”.[11]

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FYI

Artsy.net: 20 Rising Female Photojournalists
 
 
 
 
By Jon Brodkin: Ajit Pai’s robocall plan lets carriers charge for new call-blocking tools Pai urges carriers to block robocalls by default, but FCC isn’t requiring it.
 
 
 
 
By Ray Sanchez and Rosa Flores, CNN: Dallas police raid Catholic diocese properties in investigation of alleged sex abuse by clergy
 
 
 
 
By Claudia Dreifus: In Ecology Studies and Selfless Ants, He Finds Hope for the Future
 
 
 
 
Fast Company Compass: Google’s kill switch; SIM swapping; Uber’s quiet mode and more ->
 
 
 
 
The Rural Blog: Republican senators feeling the heat from constituents over trade war, but Rubio says U.S. must hang tough; Fentanyl, an added ingredient, drives increases in deaths from cocaine and methamphetamine overdoses; Conflicting federal definitions of ‘rural’ muddy the waters and more ->
 
 


 
 

 
 

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FYI May 14, 2019

On This Day

 
 
1608 – The Protestant Union, a coalition of Protestant German states, is founded to defend the rights, land and safety of each member against the Catholic Church and Catholic German states.[1]
The Protestant Union (German: Protestantische Union), also known as the Evangelical Union, Union of Auhausen, German Union or the Protestant Action Party, was a coalition of Protestant German states. It was formed on May 14, 1608 by Frederick IV, Elector Palatine in order to defend the rights, land and safety of each member. It included both Calvinist and Lutheran states, and dissolved in 1621.

The union was formed following two events. Firstly, the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II and Bavarian Duke Maximilian I reestablished Catholicism in Donauwörth in 1607. Secondly, by 1608, a majority of the Imperial Diet had decided that the renewal of the 1555 Peace of Augsburg should be conditional upon the restoration of all church land appropriated since 1552. The Protestant princes met in Auhausen, and formed a coalition of Protestant states under the leadership of Frederick IV on May 14, 1608. In response, the Catholic League organized the following year, headed by Duke Maximilian.[1]

Members of the Protestant Union included the Palatinate, Neuburg, Württemberg, Baden-Durlach, Ansbach, Bayreuth, Anhalt, Zweibrücken, Oettingen, Hesse-Kassel, Brandenburg, and the free cities of Ulm, Strasbourg, Nuremberg, Rothenburg, Windsheim, Schweinfurt, Weissenburg, Nördlingen, Schwäbisch Hall, Heilbronn, Memmingen, Kempten, Landau, Worms, Speyer, Aalen and Giengen.[2]

However, the Protestant Union was weakened from the start by the non-participation of several powerful German Protestant rulers, notably the Elector of Saxony. The Union was also beset by internal strife between its Lutheran and Calvinist members.[3]

In 1619, Frederick V of the Palatinate accepted the crown of Bohemia in opposition to Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II. On July 3, 1620, the Protestant Union signed the Treaty of Ulm (German: Ulmer Vertrag), declaring neutrality and declining to support Frederick V.[4] In January 1621, Ferdinand II imposed an imperial ban upon Frederick V and moved his right to elect an emperor to Maximilian. Electoral Palatinate also lost the Upper Palatinate to Bavaria. The Protestant Union met in Heilbronn in February and formally protested Ferdinand’s actions. He ignored this complaint and ordered the Protestant Union to disband its army. The members of the union complied with Ferdinand’s demand under the Mainz accord in May, and on May 14, 1621, it was formally dissolved.[5]

A new separate union without connection to this one emerged twelve years later, the Heilbronn League. It allied some Protestant states in western, central and southern Germany, and fought against the Holy Roman Emperor under the guidance of Sweden and France, which were at the same time parties to that league.

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Born On This Day

 
 
1794 – Fanny Imlay, daughter of British feminist Mary Wollstonecraft (d. 1816)
Frances “Fanny” Imlay (14 May 1794 – 9 October 1816), also known as Fanny Godwin and Frances Wollstonecraft, was the illegitimate daughter of the British feminist Mary Wollstonecraft and the American commercial speculator and diplomat Gilbert Imlay. Wollstonecraft wrote about her frequently in her later works. Fanny grew up in the household of anarchist political philosopher William Godwin, the widower of her mother, with his second wife and their combined family of five children. Fanny’s half-sister Mary grew up to write Frankenstein and married Percy Bysshe Shelley, a leading Romantic poet, who composed a poem on Fanny’s death.

Although Gilbert Imlay and Mary Wollstonecraft lived together happily for brief periods before and after the birth of Fanny, he left Wollstonecraft in France in the midst of the Revolution. In an attempt to revive their relationship, Wollstonecraft travelled to Scandinavia on business for him, taking the one-year-old Fanny with her, but the affair never rekindled. After falling in love with and marrying Godwin, Wollstonecraft died soon after giving birth in 1797, leaving the three-year-old Fanny in the hands of Godwin, along with their newborn daughter Mary.

Four years later, Godwin remarried and his new wife, Mary Jane Clairmont, brought two children of her own into the marriage, most significantly—from Fanny Imlay and Mary Godwin’s perspective—Claire Clairmont. Wollstonecraft’s daughters resented the new Mrs Godwin and the attention she paid to her own daughter. The Godwin household became an increasingly uncomfortable place to live as tensions rose and debts mounted. The teenage Mary and Claire escaped by running off to the Continent with Shelley in 1814. Fanny, left behind, bore the brunt of her stepfather’s anger. She became increasingly isolated from her family and committed suicide in 1816.

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FYI

 
 
By Talia Naquin and Associated Press: Tim Conway dies at 85

Thomas Daniel “Tim” Conway (December 15, 1933 – May 14, 2019)[1] was an American actor, writer, director, and comedian. He portrayed the inept Ensign Parker in the 1960s World War II situation comedy McHale’s Navy, co-starred on the 1970s variety and sketch comedy program The Carol Burnett Show, starred as the title character in the Dorf series of comedy films, and provided the voice of Barnacle Boy in the animated series SpongeBob SquarePants.

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By Steve Kim ESPN: Harold Lederman gave everything to boxing, and loved every minute

Harold Lederman (January 26, 1940 – May 11, 2019) was an American boxing judge and analyst. He began his career as a boxing judge in 1967 and joined the cast of HBO World Championship Boxing in 1986, and was there until HBO dropped boxing in 2018. Lederman was inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame in the class of 2016. Lederman died on May 11, 2019 at 79 years of age after a long battle with cancer.[1]

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Atlas Obscura: For Sale Mine Castle; Coffin Benches; Airplane Strangers and more ->
 
 
Gastro Obscura: This British Colonial Report Offers a Rare Glimpse Into India’s Historic Cannabis Cuisine; Chumuth; Tortilla Jesus and more ->
 
 
 
 

The Passive Voice: Recounting the Untold History of the Early Midwestern Pioneers; Why It Makes Sense to Charge for Online News and more ->
 
 
 
 
By CNBC Todd Haselton: Your Amazon Echo can now guard your home and listen for glass breaking. Here’s how to set it up
 
 
 
 
Surojit Chattarjee Vice President, Product Management, Shopping: Making it easier to shop across Google
 
 
 
 
By Megan Friedman Features Editor, The Keyword: Cathy Pearl has learned the art and science of conversation
 
 
 
 
By Loren Grush: NASA’s initiative to put a woman on the Moon is named Artemis, after Apollo’s twin sister
 
 
 
 
CBS News AP: Walmart launches free next-day delivery, taking aim at Amazon
 
 
 
 
The Rural Blog: Editor of Tennessee weekly shows how to cover a suicide, especially of a young person and someone you know; After Midwest flooding, hazards remain; Jury orders Bayer to pay more than $2 billion to California couple who claimed Roundup gave them cancer; Journal of Appalachian Health begins publication, and it’s about experiences in the region, not just research and more ->
 
 


 
 

 
 

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FYI May 13, 2019

On This Day

 
 
1373 – Julian of Norwich has visions which are later transcribed in her Revelations of Divine Love.

Revelations of Divine Love is a medieval book of Christian mystical devotions. It was written by an anchoress called Dame Julian, now known as Julian of Norwich, about whom almost nothing is known. The book is remarkable for being the earliest surviving example of a book in the English language to have been written by a woman.

Julian, who lived all her life in the English city of Norwich, wrote about the sixteen mystical visions or “shewings” she received in 1373, when she was thirty. Seriously ill, and on her deathbed, the visions appeared to her over a period of several hours in one night, with a final revelation occurring the following night. After making a full recovery she then wrote an account of each vision, in a manuscript now referred to as her Short Text. She developed her initial ideas over a period of decades, whilst living as a recluse in a cell attached to St Julian’s Church, Norwich, producing a much larger version of her writings, now known as the Long Text. She wrote straightforwardly in Middle English, perhaps because she had no other language in which to express herself. Her original manuscripts are now lost, but her work was copied and preserved by others, although it is known that many copied manuscripts were destroyed over the centuries. Four manuscripts of her writings survived, which have been used to produce many editions of her book, the first of which was a translation of the Long Text in 1670 by Serenus de Cressy.

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Born On This Day

 
 
1859 – Kate Marsden, British nurse and explorer who travelled to Siberia to find a cure for leprosy. (d. 1931)
Kate Marsden (13 May 1859 – 26 May 1931) was a British missionary, explorer, writer and nursing heroine. Supported by Queen Victoria and Empress Maria Fedorovna she investigated a cure of leprosy. She set out on a round trip from Moscow to Siberia to find a cure, creating a leper treatment centre in Siberia. She returned to England and inspired Bexhill Museum, but she was obliged to retire as a trustee. Marsden was dogged after her journey by homophobia, her finances were questioned as were her motives for her journey. Her accusers almost succeeded in making her sexuality the basis for an “Oscar Wilde”-type trial. She was however elected a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. She has a large diamond named after her and is still celebrated in Siberia, where a large memorial statue was erected at Sosnovka village in 2014.[1]

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FYI

 
 
By Katherine Schaffstall: Hollywood Pays Tribute to Doris Day

Doris Day (born Doris Mary Ann Kappelhoff; April 3, 1922 – May 13, 2019) was an American actress, singer, and animal welfare activist. She began her career as a big band singer in 1939, her first hit recording being “Sentimental Journey” in 1945 with Les Brown & His Band of Renown. After leaving Brown to embark on a solo career, she recorded more than 650 songs from 1947 to 1967.

Day’s film career began during the latter part of the Classical Hollywood Film era with the film Romance on the High Seas (1948), ultimately leading to her twenty-year career as a motion picture actress. She starred in a sequence of of films, including musicals, comedies, and dramas. She played the title role in Calamity Jane (1953), and starred in Alfred Hitchcock’s The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956) with James Stewart. Her most best known films were with co-star Rock Hudson in such films as Pillow Talk (1959). She also worked with James Garner on Move Over, Darling (1963). She also co-starred in films with such leading men as Clark Gable, Cary Grant, James Stewart, David Niven, and Rod Taylor. After her final film in 1968, she went on to star in the CBS sitcom The Doris Day Show (1968–1973).

As an actress, she became the biggest female film star in the early 1960s, and ranked sixth among the box-office performers by 2012.[2][3][4] In 2011, she released her 29th studio album, My Heart, which became a UK Top 10 album featuring new material. Among her awards, Day has received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award and a Legend Award from the Society of Singers. In 1960, she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress,[5] and in 1989 was given the Cecil B. DeMille Award for lifetime achievement in motion pictures. In 2004, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George W. Bush followed in 2011 by the Los Angeles Film Critics Association’s Career Achievement Award.

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By Ashley Reese: Some Select Items from NRA Chief Executive Wayne LaPierre’s Favorite Boutique
 
 
 
 
By Elizabeth Blackstock: Florida Man Retains the Right to Announce Via Window Sticker That He Eats Ass

WEBB: How is that derogatory?

DEPUTY: How is it not derogatory? Some 10-year-old little kid sitting in the passenger seat of his momma’s vehicle looks over and sees ‘I EAT ASS’ and asks his mom what it means; how is she going to explain that?

WEBB: That’s the parent’s job, not my job.
 
 

By Alanis King: Mustang Driver Somehow Uninjured After Getting Wedged Under Semi, Dragged
 
 
By Jason Torchinsky: These Motorhome and RV Crash Tests Are Remarkably Terrible
 
 
 
 
By Matt Novak: Amazon to Roll Out Automated Packing Machines, Offers $10k for Employees to Become Gig Workers
 
 
 
 
By Melanie Ehrenkranz: ‘Clean Home’ With ‘Private Bathroom’ on Airbnb Just a Roadside Shipping Container, Guest Says
 
 
 
 
Gizmodo Science: Beach Sands Near Hiroshima Are Still Packed With 1945 Nuclear Fallout Debris; New Analysis of Apollo-Era Moonquakes Shows the Moon Could Be Tectonically Active and more ->
 
 
 
 
By Molly Fosco: VR Gives Terminally Ill Children the Experience of a Lifetime
 
 
 
 
By Rocky Parker: Blog Profiles: Camping Blogs, Part 1
 
 
 
 
By Aron Heller: These Jewish World War II Veterans Would Be Legends, if People Knew Their Stories
 
 
 
 
By MessyNessy 13 Things I Found on the Internet Today (Vol. CCCLII): Eiffel Tower Spotting on its 130th Birthday; Camel’s Smoking Billboards; Nuns become Karate and Aikido masters for Self-Defense, 1978 and more ->
 
 
 
 

Nieman Lab: Quartz, built on free distribution, has put its articles behind a paywall; North Carolina’s last two family-owned daily newspapers form a joint media company; Should a public library publish local news? It might happen in Colorado and more ->
 
 
 
 
The Rural Blog: China retaliates with tariff hikes on $60 billion in U.S. goods; very bad news for farmers, especially soybean growers; Oklahoma hospital’s struggles illustrate dire situation of many rural hospitals, show local residents’ dedication; Apply by July 19 for free, expenses-paid workshop in NYC on ‘cash register justice,’ all about fines, fees, bail and jail and more ->
 
 
 
 
Fast Company Compass: The humble receipt gets a brilliant redesign; More than ever, MailChimp is about way more than mail; Tech workers have a message for Palantir and more ->
 
 
 
 
GlacierHub.org Weekly Newsletter 5-13-19: Lillian Melcher tells GlacierHub about her approach to illustrating a new graphic novel that depicts the travels and discoveries of the influential scientist. More ->
 
 


 
 

 
 

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FYI May 12, 2019

On This Day

 
 
1933 – The Agricultural Adjustment Act, which restricts agricultural production through government purchase of livestock for slaughter and paying subsidies to farmers when they remove land from planting, is signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.[6]
The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) was a United States federal law of the New Deal era designed to boost agricultural prices by reducing surpluses. The Government bought livestock for slaughter and paid farmers subsidies not to plant on part of their land. The money for these subsidies was generated through an exclusive tax on companies which processed farm products. The Act created a new agency, the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, to oversee the distribution of the subsidies.[2][3][4] The Agriculture Marketing Act, which established the Federal Farm Board in 1929, was seen as a strong precursor to this act.[5][6] The AAA, along with other New Deal programs, represented the federal government’s first substantial effort to address economic welfare in the United States.[7]

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Born On This Day

 
 
1899 – Indra Devi, Latvian yoga instructor (d. 2002)
Eugenie V. Peterson (Russian: Евгения Васильевна Петерсон; May 12, 1899 – April 25, 2002),[1] known as Indra Devi, was a Russian teacher of modern yoga who was an early disciple of Sri Tirumalai Krishnamacharya.

Early years
Born in Riga,[2] Russian Empire, to Vasili Peterson, a Swedish bank director and Alejandra Labunskaia, a Russian noblewoman, Eugenie attended drama school in Moscow as a girl and escaped to Berlin with her mother as the Bolsheviks came to power in 1917. In Berlin, she became an actress and dancer.[3]

India
Devi’s fascination with India began at 15 when she read a book by poet-philosopher Rabindranath Tagore and a yoga instruction book by Yogi Ramacharaka. In 1927, she sailed for India and adopted a stage name that would sound Hindu (using “dev”, the Hindi root for “god”) and acted in Indian films.[4] In 1930, she married Jan Strakaty, a commercial attache to the Czechoslovak consulate in Bombay.

The famous Yoga guru Sri Tirumalai Krishnamacharya accepted her as a student, only after the Maharaja of Mysore spoke on her behalf, and in 1938 she became the first foreign woman among dedicated yogis. She studied alongside B.K.S Iyengar and K. Pattabhi Jois who would also go on to become world famous yoga teachers.[3] She met every challenge Krishnamacharya set out for her and was so successful that the guru asked her to work as a yoga teacher, when he learned that her husband was to be transferred to China and she would leave India.

China
In 1939, she held what are believed to be the first Yoga classes in China and opened a school in Shanghai at the house of Madame Chiang Kai-shek, wife of the nationalist leader and a new yoga enthusiast.[3] There were many Americans and Russians among her pupils. More and more people began to call her Mataji, which means mother.[5] Indra Devi gave lectures on yoga and free lessons in orphanages.

United States
Following the unexpected death of her husband in 1946[3], with eight years of teaching experience gained in India, the renowned guru left for the United States in 1947. A year later she opened a yoga studio in Hollywood.

Indra Devi used her Indian teachings to lay claim to her own forms of yoga, these claims included Indian yoga asanas, breathing techniques such as the Indian form of Pranayama and diets. Later in life, Indra Devi stressed that her method relied on the Indian classical yoga of Patanjali.

She taught Greta Garbo, Eva Gabor, and Gloria Swanson. Also, among her students were Robert Ryan, Jennifer Jones, and the violinist Yehudi Menuhin.[3]

Contrary to popular belief, there is no record of her ever teaching Marilyn Monroe. While Monroe did own her bestselling[7] book Forever Young, Forever Healthy, there is no proof that the two women met in person. A popular photo that shows Eva Gabor training with Devi in 1960 is commonly mistaken for Monroe.

In 1953 Indra married the well-known German physician Dr. Sigfrid Knauer. In the mid-1950s she was granted American citizenship and put her Indra Devi pseudonym in her new passport.

Indra recorded several instructional talks on yoga in the 1970s, including “Renew Your Life with Yoga.”[8]

Mexico
In 1961 Indra Devi opened the Indra Devi Foundation in Tecate, México, in Rancho Cuchumá. Mataji was very close to Sathya Sai Baba a Hindu guru and she traveled often from her Yoga Foundation in Tecate Mexico to Bangalore and Puttaparthi. Indra Devi closed the International Training Center for Yoga Teachers in 1977 and moved with her very ill husband to Bangalore. In 1984 she made a trip to Sri Lanka with her husband Doctor Sigfrid Knauer where he died the following year.[9]

Later years and death
In 1985 she moved to Argentina. In 1987 she was elected president of honor of the International Yoga Federation and Latin American Union of Yoga under the presidency of Swami Maitreyananda at Montevideo, Uruguay. She died in Buenos Aires in 2002.[3]

Works
1953 Forever Young, Forever Healthy: Simplified Yoga for Modern Living. Prentice-Hall. OCLC 652377847

 
 

FYI

 
 
TMZ: Peggy Lipton ‘Twin Peaks,’ ‘Mod Squad’ Star Dead at 72

Margaret Ann Lipton (August 30, 1946 – May 11, 2019) was an American actress, model and singer. Lipton became an overnight success through her best-known role as flower child Julie Barnes in the ABC counterculture television series The Mod Squad (1968–1973) for which she won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Television Series Drama in 1970. Her fifty-year career in television, film, and on stage[1] included many roles, including Norma Jennings in David Lynch’s Twin Peaks. Lipton was formerly married to the musician and producer Quincy Jones and was mother to their two daughters, Rashida Jones and Kidada Jones, who also became actresses.

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César Cuauhtémoc González Barrón (9 January 1968 – 11 May 2019) was a Mexican luchador enmascarado (masked wrestler) and actor. He is known best as Silver King, but also had an extensive stint as Black Tiger III, the third incarnation of the Black Tiger character. He was the son of luchador Dr. Wagner and the brother of Dr. Wagner Jr. González worked for many years with El Texano as the tag team “Los Cowboys” winning tag team championships in both Mexico and Japan.

González has worked for the Universal Wrestling Association (UWA), Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre (CMLL), Lucha Libre AAA World Wide (AAA), World Championship Wrestling (WCW), All Japan Pro Wrestling (AJPW), New Japan Pro Wrestling (NJPW) and various smaller federations all over the world. González also starred as the villain “Ramses” in the movie Nacho Libre, starring Jack Black. In June 2010, González began using the ring name Silver Cain/Silver Kain when wrestling in Mexico City as a way to be able to officially be allowed to wear his mask again.

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Vector’s World: Milan, Italy; Rare opportunity and more ->
 
 
 
 
By Emily Alford: Saturday Night Social: Canadian Dog Has No Honor
 
 
 
 
By Andrew P. Collins: Tips for Driving Fast With a High Center of Gravity
 
 
 
 
Gizmodo Science: Stop Brushing Your Teeth With Charcoal Toothpaste; Scientists Created a Display With Pixels a Million Times Smaller Than Those on a Smartphone and more ->
 
 
 
 
By Janelle Griffith: An author reported a Metro worker for eating on a train. Now she might lose her book deal. The author issued an apology amid the uproar: “I apologize for a tweet I posted earlier today, which I have since deleted. I am truly sorry.”
“When you’re on your morning commute & see @wmata employee in UNIFORM eating on the train,” Tynes wrote in the tweet, which she has since deleted. “I thought we were not allowed to eat on the train. This is unacceptable. Hope @wmata responds. When I asked the employee about this, her response was, ‘worry about yourself.'”

Excellent:
Barry Hobson, the chief of staff for the Metro workers union, Amalgamated Transit Union Local 689, said in a statement Saturday the Metro employee was taking her meal break while headed to her next assignment.

The statement noted that operators have an average of “20 minutes to consume a meal and get to their next access point to ensure all buses and trains are on time, safe, and ready to serve the riding public.”

In the same statement, Local Union President Raymond Jackson said, “Let’s redirect the energy thrown at this operator toward Metro for not providing more than 20 minutes to take a meal break and a clean eating area for every employee of Metro.”
 
 

 
 


 
 

 
 

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FYI May 11, 2019

On This Day

 
 
868 – A copy of the Diamond Sutra is printed in China, making it the oldest known dated printed book.
The Diamond Sūtra (Sanskrit: Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra) is a Mahāyāna (Buddhist) sūtra from the Prajñāpāramitā sutras or ‘Perfection of Wisdom’ genre. Translated into a variety of languages over a broad geographic range, the Diamond Sutra is one of the most influential Mahayana sutras in East Asia, and is particularly prominent within the Chan (or Zen) tradition,[1] along with the Heart Sutra.

A copy of the Tang-dynasty Chinese version of the Diamond Sūtra was found among the Dunhuang manuscripts in 1900 by Daoist monk Wang Yuanlu and sold to Aurel Stein in 1907.[2] They are dated back to 11 May 868.[3] It is, in the words of the British Library, “the earliest complete survival of a dated printed book.”[4]

It is also the first creative work with an explicit public domain dedication, as its colophon at the end states that it was created “for universal free distribution.”[5]

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Born On This Day

 
 
1838 – Isabelle Bogelot, French philanthropist (d. 1923)
Isabelle Bogelot (11 May 1838, Paris – 14 June 1923, Boulogne-Billancourt) was a French philanthropist and feminist.

Biography
Born Isabelle Amélie Cottiaux, Bogelot was the daughter of Antoine André Cottiaux, a Parisian cotton trader, and Marie Anne Thérèse Cottiaux, from Cambrai. Orphaned at a young age (her father died when she was 2 and her mother when she was 4), she was adopted by the family of Maria Deraismes and her sister Anna Féresse-Deraismes.[1]

On May 7, 1864, she married Gustave Bogelot, a lawyer for the Court of Appeal of Paris.[2] The couple had at least two children.[3]

Distinctions
On January 1, 1889, she received the Ordre des Palmes académiques for the creation of temporary shelters. On May 2, 1894 she became a chevalier of the Legion of Honour.[4]

 
 

FYI

 
 
By Chris Koseluk: Alvin Sargent, Oscar-Winning Screenwriter of ‘Julia’ and ‘Ordinary People,’ Dies at 92

Alvin Sargent (April 12, 1927 – May 9, 2019) was an American screenwriter. He won two Academy Awards, one in 1978 and another in 1981, for his screenplays of Julia and Ordinary People. His most popular contribution is his having been involved in the writing of most of the films in Sony’s Spider-Man film series (The Amazing Spider-Man 2 is the first exception to this).

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The NTVS: BOMBERS! SPJ & More!
 
 
 
 
By Austin Ramzy: Havoc in Hong Kong Legislature Over Extradition Bill
 
 
 
 
One bullet.
By CBS/AP: Judith Clarke, getaway driver in 1981 Brink’s heist, released from prison
 
 
 
 
By Edward C. Baig and Charisse Jones, USA TODAY: Not just balloons. Helium shortage may deflate MRIs, airbags and research
 
 
 
 
Gastro Obscura: Britain’s iconic Brown Betty teapot is getting a redesign and more ->
 
 
 
 
Why Is Mother’s Day Breakfast in Bed Still a Thing? & More from Kitchn
 
 
 
 
By Christina Maxouris and Rob Frehse, CNN: Swarthmore college bans fraternities and sororities after allegations of racist, homophobic and misogynistic behavior
 
 
 
 
By Michelle Lou, CNN: A cardiac nurse couldn’t afford a pacemaker for her dog, so she started a program to donate used ones to pets
 
 
 
 
By Ariella Brown: 10 Breathtaking Photos Taken from Space
 
 
 
 
By CNET News Staff: 9 great reads from CNET this week
 
 
 
 
By Laura Geggel, Associate Editor: Car-Size ‘Sea Monster’ Terrorized Triassic Oceans


 
 

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FYI May 10, 2019

On This Day

1908 – Mother’s Day is observed for the first time in the United States, in Grafton, West Virginia.
Mother’s Day is a celebration honoring the mother of the family, as well as motherhood, maternal bonds, and the influence of mothers in society. It is celebrated on various days in many parts of the world, most commonly in the months of March or May. It complements similar celebrations honoring family members, such as Father’s Day, Siblings Day, and Grandparents Day.

The modern Mother’s day began in the United States, at the initiative of Anna Jarvis in the early 20th century. This is not (directly) related to the many traditional celebrations of mothers and motherhood that have existed throughout the world over thousands of years, such as the Greek cult to Cybele, the Roman festival of Hilaria, or the Christian Mothering Sunday celebration (originally a commemoration of Mother Church, not motherhood).[1][2][3][4] However, in some countries, Mother’s Day is still synonymous with these older traditions.[5]

The U.S.-derived modern version of Mother’s Day has been criticized[6][7] for having become too commercialized. Founder Jarvis herself regretted this commercialism and expressed views on how that was never her intention.[8]

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Born On This Day

1727 – Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, Baron de Laune, French economist and politician, French Controller-General of Finances (d. 1781)
Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de l’Aulne[a] (/tʊərˈɡoʊ/; French: [tyʁgo]; 10 May 1727 – 18 March 1781), commonly known as Turgot, was a French economist and statesman. Originally considered a physiocrat, he is today best remembered as an early advocate for economic liberalism.[2] He is thought to be the first economist to have recognized the law of diminishing marginal returns in agriculture.[3]

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FYI

By Charles Runnells, Fort Myers News-Press: ‘Queen of Swing’ Norma Miller: Funeral, celebration of life announced for Fort Myers, New York City

Norma Adele Miller (December 2, 1919 – May 5, 2019) was an American Lindy Hop dancer, choreographer, actress, author, and comedian known as the “Queen of Swing”.[1]

Miller was the last surviving member of Whitey’s Lindy Hoppers, the most famous professional Lindy Hop group of the early years of the dance.

Read more ->

 
 
 
 
By Mariah Haas Fox News: Jim Fowler, longtime ‘Wild Kingdom’ host, is dead at 89

James Mark Fowler (April 9, 1930 – May 8, 2019) was an American professional zoologist and host of the acclaimed wildlife documentary television show Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom.

Early years
Born in Albany, Georgia,[1] Fowler spent his youth in the town of Falls Church, Virginia exploring all things in nature in the stream valley of Four Mile Run near his family home. He graduated from Westtown School in 1947, a Quaker college prep school in Chester County, Pennsylvania, and Earlham College in 1952.[2][3]

Career
Fowler first served as co-host of Wild Kingdom with Marlin Perkins, and became the main host in 1986 following Perkins’ death. During this time he received four Emmy awards and an endorsement by the National PTA for family viewing.

Fowler was the official wildlife correspondent for NBC’s The Today Show starting in 1988 and made forty appearances on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, bringing various wild animals on the show.

In 1997, Fowler joined Discovery Communication’s Animal Planet channel as a wildlife expert and later launched the television program Jim Fowler’s Life in the Wild in 2000.

Death
Fowler died on May 8, 2019 at the age of 89 at his home in Norwalk, Connecticut from complications of heart disease.[4]

Awards
In 1991, Earlham College recognized Fowler for his distinguished career with an Outstanding Alumni Award.[5]
In 1995, the Global Communications for Conservation (GCC) organization presented Fowler with the 1995 Safari Planet Earth award for his “outstanding achievements in caring for our The National Council of State Garden Clubs, Inc., also awarded him with its highest achievement award, the Gold Seal, in recognition of his contributions to environmental causes.
In 1998, the Environmental Media Association (EMA) presented Fowler with their first-ever Lifetime Achievement award in recognition of his strong support and on-going commitment to the environment.
In 2003, Fowler was the recipient of the Lindbergh Award for his 40 years of dedication to wildlife preservation and education.[6]

Quotes
“The continued existence of wildlife and wilderness is important to the quality of life of humans. Our challenge for the future is that we realize we are very much a part of the earth’s ecosystem, and we must learn to respect and live according to the basic biological laws of nature.” — Jim Fowler

“Almost all of the social tragedies occurring around the world today are caused by ignoring the basic biological laws of nature … The quicker we humans learn that saving open space and wildlife is critical to our welfare and quality of life, maybe we’ll start thinking of doing something about it.” — Jim Fowler

 
 
 
 
Open Culture: Why Knights Fought Snails in Illuminated Medieval Manuscripts; Star Trek‘s Nichelle Nichols Creates a Short Film for NASA to Recruit New Astronauts (1977) and more ->
 
 
 
 
By Georgina Kenyon: How Weeds Help Fight Climate Change
 
 
 
 
By Brie Stimson Fox News: Conan O’Brien settles joke-stealing lawsuit, blames ‘tweet-saming’ in defending his writers
 
 
 
 
By Stephen Thompson: Kneel Before The Earworm: Ed Sheeran And Justin Bieber Return With ‘I Don’t Care’
 
 
 
 
By Doug Criss, CNN: After a school district said it’ll serve jelly sandwiches to students with lunch debt, Chobani stepped in
Several parents were furious about the school district’s decision to give students with lunch debt a limited midday-meal option. They called it lunch shaming.
“Just give the kids lunch,” one parent wrote on the district’s Facebook page. “We already lost a janitor, science teacher, don’t have air conditioning, we can’t spring for a chicken patty for a hungry kid? What if this is their only meal of the day?”
 
 
 
 
By Ryan W. Miller: Judge: California couple must pay nearly $600k for uprooting, killing an ancient oak tree
 
 
 
 

By Rob Picheta, CNN: Extinct species of bird came back from the dead, scientists find
 
 
 
 
The Passive Voice: The Inner Lives of Book Clubs; Patreon, Copyright, and Personal Choice and more ->
 
 
 
 
The Rural Blog: Newspapers must show their complacent communities that they are an essential civic asset, not like ‘news from Google’; Quick hits: Black coal miners, interpreters for rural-refugee health, a town dubbed ‘Cancer Alley’ and one that won’t die; Agriculture needs more tech specialists; hard to recruit and more ->
 
 
 
 
On May 10th, 2019, support foster youth in Alaska and view the premiere of the new HBO documentary FOSTER.
Drawing on unprecedented access, FOSTER explores the often-misunderstood world of foster care through compelling stories from the Los Angeles County Department of Children and Family Services, the largest county child welfare agency in the country.
 
 
 
 

Ideas

 
 
By Tracey Tutorial Team: Soothing Sounds- A DIY Outdoor Fountain
 
 
Stephie McCarthy Hometalker Harpers Ferry, WV: Easy Metallic Labels With Alphabet Stickers and Hand Lettering
 
 
By jprussack: Window Greenhouse
 
 
By Allmywaysandrea: SEW AN EASY HANDMADE CLUTCH
 
 


 
 

 
 

Recipes

By In the Kitchen With Matt: Juicy Hamburger
 
 
Food By Lyds: Homemade Meat Sauce
 
Foodimentary: May Holidays
 
 


 
 

FYI May 09, 2019

On This Day

 
 
1386 – England and Portugal formally ratify their alliance with the signing of the Treaty of Windsor, making it the oldest diplomatic alliance in the world which is still in force.
The Treaty of Windsor is the diplomatic alliance signed between Portugal and England on 9 May 1386 at Windsor and sealed by the marriage of King John I of Portugal (House of Aviz) to Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster.[1] With the victory at the Battle of Aljubarrota, assisted by English archers, John I was recognized as the undisputed King of Portugal, putting an end to the interregnum of the 1383–1385 Crisis.[1] The Treaty of Windsor established a pact of mutual support between the countries.[1]

This document is preserved at the Portuguese National Archives.[2]

Historian Matthew Winslett says, “This treaty has been the cornerstone of both nations’ relations with each other ever since.”[3]

 
 

Born On This Day

 
 
1746 – Gaspard Monge, French mathematician and engineer (d. 1818)[3]
Gaspard Monge, Comte de Péluse (9 May 1746[2] – 28 July 1818[3]) was a French mathematician, the inventor of descriptive geometry[4] (the mathematical basis of technical drawing), and the father of differential geometry.[5] During the French Revolution he served as the Minister of the Marine, and was involved in the reform of the French educational system, helping to found the École Polytechnique.

Read more ->
 
 

FYI

By Prachi Gupta: The Chaotic Spectacle of Alabama Republicans Fighting to Criminalize Abortion at Conception
 
 
 
 
By Jason Torchinsky: Dealership Employee Caught on Dashcam Teaching Other Employee How to Drive Stick on Customer Car
 
 
Great comments!
By Jason Torchinsky: Missouri HOA Threatens to Foreclose on Truck Owner’s House Because They Don’t Understand Patina
Dr. Strangegun
Homeowner Oppression Association?

 
 
 
 
By Dan Neilan: Astronauts on the International Space Station paid tribute to Star Wars’ Peter Mayhew
 
 
 
 
Gizmodo Science: Yet More Research Links Appendectomies and Parkinson’s Disease; Some Deep-Sea Fish Can See Color in Near Total Darkness and more ->
 
 
 
 
By Sarah Ford and Jon Schuppe: Direct radio link was a lifesaver in Colorado school attack, sheriff says In mass shootings, good radios can save lives, authorities say.
 
 
 
 
By Daniel Luria: Happy 71st Birthday Israel…Since 1948
 
 
 
 
By Nicole Howard: These 9 Asian American News Sites Offer Unique Coverage of This Diverse Community
 
 
 
 
By Associated Press: 91-year-old WWII vet gets high school diploma with grandson
 
 
 
 
By Molly Hennessy-Fiske: Arizona tribe refuses Trump’s wall, but agrees to let Border Patrol build virtual barrier
 
 
 
 
By Associated Press: Pope Francis issues groundbreaking law requiring priests, nuns to report sex abuse, cover-up The law mandates that the world’s 415,000 Catholic priests and 660,000 religious sisters inform church authorities when they have “well-founded motives to believe” abuse has occurred.
 
 
 
 
By Jack Horan: In an NC swamp, researcher finds tree older than Christianity. Could there be more?
 
 
 
 

By Joshua Bote: Kacey Musgraves Is A Cosmic Centaur In ‘Oh, What A World’ Video
 
 
 
 
By Bill Chappell: U.S. Charges Former Intelligence Analyst With Leaking Classified Data To Reporter
 
 
 
 
The Rural Blog: Tariff hikes looms over U.S-China trade talks; president of soybean farmers says they ‘are in a desperate situation’; Justice sues Justice, so to speak: Feds seek $4.7 million in fines owed by coal companies owned by W.Va. governor; Pennsylvania farmers, faced with immigrant shortage, get creative about labor sources in efforts to stay afloat; California to ban pesticide linked to brain damage in babies; Kentucky’s broadband boondoggle is a cautionary tale; is governor’s aide undercutting him by siding with AT&T? More ->
 
 
 
 
By Anna Brones: Is Velveeta Cheese Actually Cheese? The History of this All-American Food
 
 
 
 

By Andy Cochrane: Living Full-Time in a Toyota Tacoma How our writer turned a midsize pickup into the ultimate adventure home.

 
 
 
 
By Ehren: NCU Podcast # 001 – Kelley McRae on Creativity, Songwriting, and Discovering the Heart of Your Story
 
 

 
 


 
 

 
 

Recipes

 
 


 
 

 
 

FYI May 08, 2019

On This Day

 
 
453 BC – Spring and Autumn period: The house of Zhao defeats the house of Zhi, ending the Battle of Jinyang, a military conflict between the elite families of the State of Jin.
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC[a])[2] which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period. The period’s name derives from the Spring and Autumn Annals, a chronicle of the state of Lu between 722 and 479 BC, which tradition associates with Confucius (551–479 BC).

During this period, the Zhou royal authority over the various feudal states started to decline, as more and more dukes and marquesses obtained de facto regional autonomy, defying the king’s court in Luoyi, and waging wars amongst themselves. The gradual Partition of Jin, one of the most powerful states, marked the end of the Spring and Autumn period, and the beginning of the Warring States period.

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Born On This Day

 
 
1867 – Margarete Böhme, German novelist (d. 1939)
Margarete Böhme (8 May 1867 – 23 May 1939) was, arguably, one of the most widely read German writers of the early 20th century. Böhme authored 40 novels – as well as short stories, autobiographical sketches, and articles. The Diary of a Lost Girl, first published in 1905 as Tagebuch einer Verlorenen, is her best known and bestselling book. By the end of the 1920s, it had sold more than a million copies, ranking it among the bestselling books of its time.[1] One contemporary scholar has called it “Perhaps the most notorious and certainly the commercially most successful autobiographical narrative of the early twentieth century.”[2]

Read more ->

 
 

FYI

By Sam Roberts: Robert Pear, Authoritative Times Reporter on Health Care, Dies at 69
 
 
By Susan Miller USA Today: Kendrick Castillo, hero killed in Colorado school shooting, was days away from graduation
 
 

By Ryan W. Miller and Trevor Hughes, USA TODAY: Colorado teen who plans to become Marine tackled suspected shooter
Student Nui Giasolli told NBC’s “Today” show that multiple students in her literature class jumped at the shooter, including the student who was fatally shot.

“They were very heroic,” she said of the students who confronted the shooter. “I can’t thank them enough.”
 
 
 
 
By Elizabeth Blackstock: Red Bull Racing’s New F1 Motorhome Is Nicer Than Every House I’ve Ever Been In
 
 
 
 
By Victoria Song: Baltimore’s Government Held Hostage by Ransomware Attack
For the second time in just over a year, Baltimore has fallen victim to a major cyberattack. Last year, hackers targeted the city’s 911 emergency system, but this time around, the city government’s files are being held hostage by ransomware.

First things first, if you live in the Baltimore area, vital emergency systems like 911 and 311 remain operational. However, most of the city’s servers were shut down as a precaution after the attack, and officials are unsure when they’ll be fully operational again.
 
 
 
 
By George Dvorsky: Adorable Jurassic Dinosaur May Have Flown With Bat-Like Wings
 
 
 
 
By Molly Fosco: The Rise of Digital Tipping — From Music to Your Own Paycheck
 
 
By Hannah Kuchler: This A.I. Pioneer Offers Her Cure for Prescription Drugs
“Is there a reason why it should take 15 years to develop a drug? Why are the chances of success, depending on which stage of the pipeline you begin in, at 5 percent? I mean, it seems like we ought to be able to do better than that,” she says. “Perfect is hard, human biology is hard, but can we improve on where we are? It would be so sad if we couldn’t.”
 
 
By Nick Fouriezos: Examining the Wild, Wild Laws of Colorado
 
 
 
 
Today’s email was written by Aisha Hassan, edited by Jessanne Collins, and produced by Luiz Romero. Quartz Obsession: Porta potties
 
 
 
 
Open Culture: Pioneering Computer Scientist Grace Hopper Shows Us How to Visualize a Nanosecond (1983); Mr. Rogers’ Nine Rules for Speaking to Children (1977); How David Bowie Used William S. Burroughs’ Cut-Up Method to Write His Unforgettable Lyrics and more ->
 
 
 
 
By Scott Myers: Dan Harmon, The Hero’s Journey, and the Circle Theory of Story
 
 
 
 

Barn Finds Kevin Barr: Caddy Camper: 1958 Cadillac Superior House Car
 
 
Barn Finds Scotty Gilbertson: 4×4 Camper: 1978 Chevrolet Blazer Chalet

By Michael Schaub: ‘The Pioneers’ Dives Deep Into Lives Of Northwest Territory Settlers

 
 
 
 
The Rural Blog: Op-ed: support women entrepreneurs to help rural areas; WSJ story on newspapers confuses and obscures role of weeklies, but it’s otherwise good; especially the graphics; Ag economists offer tips for farmers in financial distress and more ->
 
 


 
 

 
 

Recipes

By Maura: 5 Ingredient Easy Bruschetta Recipe with Roasted Red Peppers & Basil!


 
 

 
 

FYI May 07, 2019

On This Day

1895 – In Saint Petersburg, Russian scientist Alexander Stepanovich Popov demonstrates to the Russian Physical and Chemical Society his invention, the Popov lightning detector—a primitive radio receiver. In some parts of the former Soviet Union the anniversary of this day is celebrated as Radio Day.
Alexander Stepanovich Popov (sometimes spelled Popoff; Russian: Алекса́ндр Степа́нович Попо́в; March 16 [O.S. March 4] 1859 – January 13 [O.S. December 31, 1905] 1906) was a Russian physicist who is acclaimed in his homeland and some eastern European countries as the inventor of radio.[1][2][3]

Popov’s work as a teacher at a Russian naval school led him to explore high frequency electrical phenomena. On May 7, 1895, he presented a paper on a wireless lightning detector he had built that worked via using a coherer to detect radio noise from lightning strikes. This day is celebrated in the Russian Federation as Radio Day. In a March 24, 1896, demonstration, he used radio waves to transmit a message between different campus buildings in St. Petersburg. His work was based on that of another physicist – Oliver Lodge, and contemporaneous with the work of Guglielmo Marconi. Marconi had just registered a patent with the description of the device two months after first transmission of radio signals made by Popov.[4]

Read more ->

 
 

Born On This Day

1845 – Mary Eliza Mahoney, African American nurse and activist (d. 1926)
Mary Eliza Mahoney (May 7, 1845 – January 4, 1926) was the first African American to study and work as a professionally trained nurse in the United States, graduating in 1879. Mahoney was one of the first African Americans to graduate from a nursing school, and she prospered in a predominantly white society. She also challenged discrimination against African Americans in nursing.[1]

In 1908, Mahoney co-founded the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses (NACGN) with Adah B. Thoms. This organization attempted to uplift the standards and everyday lives of African-American registered nurses. The NACGN had a significant influence on eliminating racial discrimination in the registered nursing profession.[1] In 1951, the NACGN merged with the American Nurses Association.

Mahoney has received many honors and awards for her pioneering work. She was inducted into the American Nurses Association Hall of Fame in 1976 and into the National Women’s Hall of Fame in 1993.

Read more ->

 
 

FYI

Vector’s World: Pencil art; Double parked; Happy Cinco de Mayo and more ->
 
 
 
 
Today’s email was written by Sarah Todd with reporting and charts from Gwynn Guilford, edited by Jessanne Collins, and produced by Luiz Romero. Quartz Obsession: Butter
 
 
 
 
By Ben Kesslen: Texas bartender faces charges for serving shooter before mass killing Lindsay Glass was charged with a misdemeanor for serving alcohol to Spencer Hight the night he killed 8 people, including his ex-wife.
 
 
 
 
By Matt Wynn: Our Database of Troubled Cops, and How You Can Help USA TODAY just released a database of 30,000 officers. Join us in using this data.
 
 
 
 
Quora Gabriel Weinberg, CEO & Founder at DuckDuckGo.com (2008-present): Why should I use DuckDuckGo instead of Google?
 
 
 
 
The Passive Voice: The Amazon Effect Hits Fifth Avenue; I Used to Get Really Grumpy with People Because They Put My Poems Up, They Put My Stories Up; Annotate the World and more ->
 
 
 
 
Paul Militaru: Photography
 
 
 
 

Ideas

By Hometalk Hits: 23 Adorable Ways You Can Make Your Own Coasters Great for your home or the perfect gift for a friend!
 
 
Holly Lengner – Lost Mom Tutorial Team Longmont, CO: Mason Jar Faux Flower Arrangement
 
 
Mother Daughter Projects Hometalker Tallahassee, FL: DIY Pegboard Jewelry Storage Holder
 
 
By CraftAndu: Roll-top Pannier From Duct Tape
 
 
By Honus: Hand Fabricated Pendant With Stones
 
 
By Mimikry: Name on Rice Seed Pendant
 
 


 
 

 
 

Recipes

By Paperplateandplane: Avocado Tropical Pie
 
 
By In The Kichen With Matt: Chocolate Bread
 
 
By Momos75: How to Render Fat


 
 

 
 

FYI May 06, 2019

On This Day

 
 
1527 – Spanish and German troops sack Rome; many scholars consider this the end of the Renaissance.[1]
The Sack of Rome on 6 May 1527 was a military event carried out in Rome (then part of the Papal States) by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. It marked a crucial imperial victory in the conflict between Charles and the League of Cognac (1526–1529)—the alliance of France, Milan, Venice, Florence and the Papacy.

Read more ->
 
 

Born On This Day

 
 
1405 – George Kastrioti, better known as Skanderbeg, Albanian national hero (d. 1468)
George Castriot (Albanian: Gjergj Kastrioti; 6 May 1405 – 17 January 1468), known as Skanderbeg (Albanian: Skënderbej or Skënderbeu from Ottoman Turkish: اسکندر بگ‎, translit. İskender Beğ), was an Albanian nobleman and military commander who led a rebellion against the Ottoman Empire in what is today Albania and North Macedonia.

A member of the noble Castriot family, he was sent to the Ottoman court as part of the Devshirme, where he was educated and entered the service of the Ottoman sultan for the next twenty years. He rose through the ranks, culminating in the appointment as sanjakbey (governor) of the Sanjak of Dibra in 1440. In 1443, he deserted the Ottomans during the Battle of Niš and became the ruler of Krujë, Svetigrad, and Modrič. In 1444, he was appointed the chief commander of the short-lived League of Lezhë that consolidated nobility throughout what is today Northern Albania. Thus, for the first time Albania was united under a single leader.[1] Skanderbeg’s rebellion was not a general uprising of Albanians, because he did not gain support in the Venetian-controlled north or in the Ottoman-controlled south. His followers included, apart from Albanians, also Slavs, Vlachs, and Greeks.[2] Despite this military valor he was not able to do more than to hold his own possessions within the very small area in nowadays northern Albania where almost all of his victories against the Ottomans took place.[3] His rebellion was a national rebellion.[4] The resistance led by him brought Albanians of different regions and dialects together in a common cause, helping define the ethnic identity of the Albanians.[5][full citation needed] Skanderbeg’s military skills presented a major obstacle to Ottoman expansion, and he was considered by many in western Europe to be a model of Christian resistance against Muslims.[4] For 25 years, from 1443 to 1468, Skanderbeg’s 10,000 man army marched through Ottoman territory winning against consistently larger and better supplied Ottoman forces,[6] for which he was admired.[7]

Skanderbeg always signed himself in Latin: Dominus Albaniae (“Lord of Albania”), and claimed no other titles but that in documents.[8] In 1451, he recognized de jure the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Naples over Albania through the Treaty of Gaeta, to ensure a protective alliance, although he remained a de facto independent ruler.[9] In 1460–61, he participated in Italy’s civil wars in support of Ferdinand I of Naples. In 1463, he became the chief commander of the crusading forces of Pope Pius II, but the Pope died while the armies were still gathering. Together with Venetians he fought against the Ottomans during the Ottoman–Venetian War (1463–1479) until his death in January 1468. He ranks high in that military history, as the most persistent opponent of the Ottoman Empire in its heyday who was also ever-victorious.[10]

Read more ->

 
 

FYI

 
 
By Yaron Steinbuch: Steward died helping passengers escape burning Russian plane
He lost his life after refusing to leave anyone aboard behind before fleeing himself, the news outlet reported.

Moiseyev, a military veteran, completed a correspondence course in civil aviation before becoming a flight attendant 15 months ago, according to the report.
 
 
By Amanda Woods: How hero flight attendant saved passengers in fiery Russian plane crash
A heroic flight attendant on the plane that burst into flames during a dramatic emergency landing in Moscow grabbed passengers “by the collar” and pushed them out of the aircraft to safety, according to a new report.
 
 
 
 
By ggphillips: What Basic Hand Tools And Supplies Do I Need To Start A Garden?
 
 
 
 
By Anna Marevska Blog Profiles: Motherhood Blogs
 
 
 
 
Rodney Robinson 2019 National Teacher of the Year: Why you should thank a teacher this week, and always
 
 
 
 
By Joshua Benton: NPR debuts a new Morning Edition theme, and the fact that people care shows the continued power of old-fashioned, non-Internet radio
 
 
By Christine Schmidt: “Is he a local boy?” Is Report for America building trust within the communities it serves?
 
 
 
 
By Andrey Atuchin, Virginia Tech via AP: Meet the T. rex cousin who you could literally look down on
 
 
 
 
The rural Blog: Farmers increasingly stressed, dealing with mental health issues, according to new poll; More than 19 million in U.S., especially near military bases, have dangerous chemicals in drinking water; see local data and more ->
 
 
 
 
Pavel Kosenko: Baskunchak Lake
A few iPhone’s pictures from Baskunchak Lake. Russia, Astrakhan region, Baskunchak Lake. May 2019. All photos are processed with Dehancer application. It’s realistic film simulation works with any photo as a correction filter (preset) applied in one click and can be modified by user.
 
 
 
 
By MessyNessy 13 Things I Found on the Internet Today (Vol. CCCLI): High School Kids made a stage prodution of Aliens. (And it’s online); Berezniki: The Russian City Swallowed By Sinkholes; Every Building on Every Block: A Time Capsule of 1930s New York; A 1950s Drive-in Movie Theatre from the air; Reims Cathedral once had an Ancient Maze; A French 17th century chapel for sale outside Paris and more ->
 
 
 
 
The Passive Voice: To the One I Love the Best; The Open Library; Asian American Classic Novels Given New Life by Penguin Classics and more ->
 
 
 
 

Ideas

By Hometalk Highlights: 10 Unique Ways To Plant Your Herb Garden No need to plant your beloved herbs in boring planters after these ideas!
 
 


 
 

 
 

Recipes

 
 
By TheFrayedApron: Sweet Corn Cream Pie
 
 
By The Lefty Maker: Classic Lard Cookies (Maslenki)
 
 
By DanPro: Beef and Bourbon Pie