On This Day
1865 – The first issue of The Nation magazine is published.
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, covering progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis. It was founded on July 6, 1865, as a successor to William Lloyd Garrison’s The Liberator. It is published by its namesake owner The Nation Company, L.P., at 33 Irving Place, New York City, and associated with The Nation Institute.
The Nation has news bureaus in Washington, D.C., London, and South Africa, with departments covering architecture, art, corporations, defense, environment, films, legal affairs, music, peace and disarmament, poetry, and the United Nations. Circulation peaked at 187,000 in 2006 but by 2010 had dropped to 145,000 in print, although digital subscriptions had risen to over 15,000.
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1798 – As a result of the XYZ Affair, the US Congress rescinds the Treaty of Alliance with France sparking the “Quasi-War”.
The XYZ Affair was a political and diplomatic episode in 1797 and 1798, early in the presidency of John Adams, involving a confrontation between the United States and Republican France that led to the Quasi-War. The name derives from the substitution of the letters X, Y and Z for the names of French diplomats Jean Conrad Hottinguer (X), Pierre Bellamy (Y), and Lucien Hauteval (Z) in documents released by the Adams administration.
An American diplomatic commission was sent to France in July 1797 to negotiate a solution to problems that were threatening to break out into war. The diplomats, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, John Marshall, and Elbridge Gerry, were approached through informal channels by agents of the French foreign minister, Talleyrand, who demanded bribes and a loan before formal negotiations could begin. Although such demands were not uncommon in mainland European diplomacy of the time, the Americans were offended by them, and eventually left France without ever engaging in formal negotiations. Gerry, seeking to avoid all-out war, remained for several months after the other two commissioners left. His exchanges with Talleyrand laid groundwork for the eventual end to diplomatic and military hostilities.
The failure of the commission caused a political firestorm in the United States when the commission’s dispatches were published. It led to the undeclared Quasi-War (1798–1800). Federalists, who controlled both houses of Congress and held the presidency, took advantage of the national anger to build up the nation’s military. They also attacked the Democratic-Republicans for their pro-French stance, and Elbridge Gerry (a nonpartisan at the time) for what they saw as his role in the commission’s failure.
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Born On This Day
1912 – Molly Yard, American feminist (d. 2005)
Mary Alexander “Molly” Yard (July 6, 1912 – September 21, 2005) was an American feminist of the late 20th century who was an assistant to First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, and later a U.S. administrator, social activist and feminist, who served as National Organization for Women (NOW)’s eighth president from 1987 to 1991 and was a link between first and second-wave feminism.
She was born in Chengdu, Sichuan province, China, the daughter of Methodist missionaries. She graduated in 1933 from Swarthmore College, a coeducational college that was also the alma mater of Alice Paul. While at Swarthmore, she led a successful drive to eliminate the systematic sorority bigotry in place there after a Jewish fellow student had been denied admission to her sorority, Kappa Alpha Theta. In 1938 she married Sylvester Garrett, a union that lasted until his death in 1996.
Early career and politics
She became active in Democratic Party politics, and in the late 1940s and early 1950s worked with the Clark-Dilworth team to unseat the entrenched city machine in Philadelphia. Two years later, she worked in Helen Gahagan Douglas’ unsuccessful campaign for the U.S. Senate against second-year Congressman Richard Nixon’s effective campaign attacks on Gahagan Douglas in California.
She moved to Pittsburgh in 1953, where she worked in the gubernatorial campaign of Mayor David L. Lawrence in 1958, led the Western Pennsylvania presidential campaigns of John F. Kennedy in 1960 and George McGovern in 1972, led the unsuccessful campaign to get NAACP President Byrd Brown the Democratic nomination to Congress, and was co-chair with Mayor Joseph M. Barr of the unsuccessful U.S. Senate campaign of Jeanette Reibman in 1976.
She made an unsuccessful run for the state legislature as a candidate from Pittsburgh’s Ward 14 in 1964.
In addition to her political work, she helped found Americans for Democratic Action (ADA), America’s oldest independent liberal lobbying organization, and the Pittsburgh’s 14th Ward Independent Democratic Club. She was also the organization secretary and national chairwoman of the American Student Union.
Activities in the National Organization for Women
She became active in NOW while a resident of the Squirrel Hill neighborhood of Pittsburgh in 1974, and joined the national staff in 1978 during the nearly successful campaign to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), serving as a lobbyist in Washington, D.C. She raised more than $1 million in less than six months for that drive.
A prime architect of NOW’s political and legislative agenda, she was a senior staff member of the NOW Political Action Committee from 1978 to 1984. As NOW’s political director from 1985 to 1987, she was instrumental in the successful 1986 campaign to defeat pro-life referendums in Arkansas, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Oregon.
In April 1989, she helped to carry the banner for the March for Women’s Equality / Women’s Lives, which drew 600,000 marchers to Washington in support of abortion rights and the ERA.
She defeated Noreen Connell in the 1987 NOW presidential election. On taking office, she vowed to make the organization more visible and work to defeat President Reagan’s nomination of Judge Robert H. Bork to the U.S. Supreme Court, which was ultimately rejected by the U.S. Senate.
The membership of NOW grew by 110,000 during the years of her presidency and its annual budget increased 70 percent, to more than $10 million.
As NOW president, she opposed U.S. involvement in the Persian Gulf War, saying Americans should not be fighting for “clan-run monarchies” in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia that denied women’s rights.
Also in 1991, she was honored in Paris by the French Alliance of Women for Democratization for her pioneering work in reproductive rights; she had been a leader in the effort to get Paris-based manufacturer Roussel Uclaf to make the so-called “French abortion pill” (or “morning-after” pill(RU-486) available in the United States.
She received the Feminist Majority Foundation’s lifetime achievement award for “tireless work for women’s rights, for women and girls in sports, for the Equal Rights Amendment for Women, for civil rights for all Americans, for her championing of the trade union movement, and her devotion to world peace and non-violence.”
She died peacefully in her sleep at age 93 at a nursing home in suburban Pittsburgh on September 20, 2005.
1905 – Marie-Louise Dubreil-Jacotin, French mathematician (d. 1972)
Marie-Louise Dubreil-Jacotin (7 July 1905 – 19 October 1972) was a French mathematician, the second woman to obtain a doctorate in pure mathematics in France, the first woman to become a full professor of mathematics in France, and an expert on fluid mechanics and abstract algebra.
Early life and education
Marie-Louise Jacotin was the daughter of a lawyer for a French bank, and the grand-daughter (through her mother) of a glassblower from a family of Greek origin. Her mathematics teacher at the lycée was a sister of mathematician Élie Cartan, and after passing the baccalaureate she was allowed (through the intervention of a friend’s father, the head of the institution) to continue studying mathematics at the Collège de Chaptal. On her second attempt, she placed second in the entrance examination for the École Normale Supérieure in 1926 (tied with Claude Chevalley), but by a ministerial decree was moved down to 21st position. After the intervention of Fernand Hauser, the editor of the Journal of the ENS, she was admitted to the school. Her teachers there included Henri Lebesgue and Jacques Hadamard, and she finished her studies in 1929.
With the encouragement of ENS director Ernest Vessiot she traveled to Oslo to work with Vilhelm Bjerknes, under whose influence she became interested in the mathematics of waves and the work of Tullio Levi-Civita in this subject. She returned to Paris in 1930, married another mathematician, Paul Dubreil, and joined him on another tour of the mathematics centers of Germany and Italy, including a visit with Levi-Civita. The Dubreils returned to France again in 1931.
Career and research
While her husband taught at Lille, Dubreil-Jacotin continued her research, finishing a doctorate in 1934 concerning the existence of infinitely many different waves in ideal liquids, under the supervision of Henri Villat. Before her, the only women to obtain doctorates in mathematics in France were Marie Charpentier in 1931 (also in pure mathematics) and Edmée Chandon in 1930 (in astronomy and geodesy).
Following her husband, she moved to Nancy, but was unable to obtain a faculty position there herself because that was viewed as nepotism; instead, she became a research assistant at the University of Rennes. She was promoted to a teaching position in 1938, and became an assistant professor at the University of Lyon in 1939, while also continuing to teach at Rennes. In 1943 she became a full professor at the University of Poitiers, the first woman to become a full professor of mathematics in France, and in 1955 she was given a chair there in differential and integral calculus. In 1956 she moved to the University of Paris and after the university split she held a professorship at Pierre and Marie Curie University.
In the 1950s, motivated by the study of averaging operators for turbulence, Dubreil-Jacotin’s interests turned towards abstract algebra, and she later performed research in semigroups and graded algebraic structures. She was the author of two textbooks, one on lattice theory and the other on abstract algebra. As well as her technical publications, Jacotin was the author of a work in the history of mathematics, Portraits of women mathematicians.
Rue Marie-Louise-Dubreil-Jacotin, a street in the 13th arrondissement of Paris within Paris Diderot University, is named after her, and the University of Poitiers also has a street with the same name. In semigroup theory, the Dubreil-Jacotin semigroups are also named after her, as is the Dubreil-Jacotin–Long equation, “the standard model for internal gravity waves” in fluid mechanics.
By Reuters: Brazilian musician João Gilberto, founder of bossa nova, dies in Rio The Grammy-winning artist was instrumental in popularizing the bossa nova music style around the world.
SAO PAULO – Brazilian musician João Gilberto, 88, who developed bossa nova music and helped turn the style into a worldwide craze, died on Saturday afternoon in his house in Rio de Janeiro, relatives confirmed through messages in social media.
His son Marcelo Gilberto said on Facebook “his fight was noble and he tried to maintain dignity”. His daughter in law wrote: “Deep sadness. All he wanted was to be with us and to play with his granddaughter”.
João Gilberto Prado Pereira de Oliveira, known as João Gilberto (Portuguese: [ʒuˈɐ̃w ʒiwˈbɛʁtu]; 10 June 1931 – 6 July 2019), was a Brazilian singer, songwriter, and guitarist. He pioneered the musical genre of bossa nova in the late 1950s, as such, he is sometimes known as the “father of bossa nova”.
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