On This Day
1936 – First flight of the Vickers Wellington bomber.
The Vickers Wellington was a British twin-engined, long-range medium bomber. It was designed during the mid-1930s at Brooklands in Weybridge, Surrey, led by Vickers-Armstrongs’ chief designer Rex Pierson; a key feature of the aircraft is its geodetic airframe fuselage structure, principally designed by Barnes Wallis. Development had been started in response to Air Ministry Specification B.9/32; issued in the middle of 1932, this called for a twin-engined day bomber capable of delivering higher performance than any previous design. Other aircraft developed to the same specification include the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley and the Handley Page Hampden. During the development process, performance requirements such as for the tare weight changed substantially, as well as the powerplant for the type being swapped.
The Wellington was used as a night bomber in the early years of the Second World War, performing as one of the principal bombers used by Bomber Command. During 1943, it started to be superseded as a bomber by the larger four-engined “heavies” such as the Avro Lancaster. The Wellington continued to serve throughout the war in other duties, particularly as an anti-submarine aircraft. It holds the distinction of being the only British bomber to be produced for the duration of the war and of being produced in a greater quantity than any other British-built bomber. The Wellington remained as first-line equipment when the war ended, although it had been increasingly relegated to secondary roles. The Wellington was one of two bombers named after Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, the other being the Vickers Wellesley.
A larger heavy bomber aircraft designed to Specification B.1/35, the Vickers Warwick, was developed in parallel with the Wellington; the two aircraft shared around 85% of their structural components. Many elements of the Wellington were also reused in a civil derivative, the Vickers VC.1 Viking.
Born On This Day
1894 – Nikolai Chebotaryov, Ukrainian-Russian mathematician and theorist (d. 1947)
Nikolai Grigorievich Chebotaryov (often spelled Chebotarov or Chebotarev, Russian: Никола́й Григо́рьевич Чеботарёв, Ukrainian: Микола Григорович Чоботарьов) (15 June [O.S. 3 June] 1894 – 2 July 1947) was a noted Russian and Soviet mathematician. He is best known for the Chebotaryov density theorem.
He was a student of Dmitry Grave, a famous Russian mathematician. Chebotaryov worked on the algebra of polynomials, in particular examining the distribution of the zeros. He also studied Galois theory and wrote an influential textbook on the subject titled Basic Galois Theory. His ideas were used by Emil Artin to prove the Artin reciprocity law. He worked with his student Anatoly Dorodnov on a generalization of the quadrature of the lune, and proved the conjecture now known as the Chebotaryov theorem on roots of unity.
Nikolai Chebotaryov was born on 15 June 1894 in Kamianets-Podilskyi, Russian Empire (modern-day Ukraine). He entered the department of physics and mathematics at Kiev University in 1912. In 1928 he became a professor at Kazan University, remaining there for the rest of his life. He died on 2 July 1947. He was an atheist. On 14 May 2010 a memorial plaque for Nikolai Chebotaryov was unveiled on the main administration building of I.I. Mechnikov Odessa National University.
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