Category: FYI


FYI March 10, 2018



On This Day

1891 – Almon Strowger, an undertaker in Topeka, Kansas, patents the Strowger switch, a device which led to the automation of telephone circuit switching.
The Strowger switch is the first commercially successful electromechanical stepping switch telephone exchange system. It was developed by the Strowger Automatic Telephone Exchange Company founded in 1891 by Almon Brown Strowger. Because of its operational characteristics it is also known as a step-by-step (SXS) switch.

Strowger, an undertaker, was motivated to invent an automatic telephone exchange after having difficulties with the local telephone operators, one of whom was the wife of a competitor. He was said to be convinced that she, as one of the manual telephone exchange operators, was sending calls “to the undertaker” to her husband.[1]

He conceived his invention in 1888, and was awarded a patent for an automatic telephone exchange in 1891. The initial model was made from a round collar box and some straight pins.[2]

While Almon Strowger devised the initial concept, he was not alone in his endeavors and sought the assistance of his brother Arnold, nephew William, and others with a knowledge of electricity and financing to realize the concept. The Strowger Automatic Telephone Exchange Company was founded in 1891.[2]

The company installed and opened the first commercial exchange in his then-home town of La Porte, Indiana on November 3, 1892, with about 75 subscribers and a capacity for 99. It used two telegraph type keys on the telephone, which had to be tapped the correct number of times to step the switch, but the use of separate keys with separate conductors to the exchange was not practical for a commercial system. Early advertising called the new invention the “girl-less, cuss-less, out-of-order-less, wait-less telephone”. [3]

The Strowger Automatic Telephone Exchange Company became the Automatic Electric Company, which Strowger was involved in founding, although Strowger himself seems not to have been involved in further developments. The Strowger patents were exclusively licensed to the Automatic Electric Company. Strowger sold his patents in 1896 for US$1,800 and sold his share in Automatic Electric in 1898 for US$10,000. His patents subsequently sold for US$2.5 million in 1916. Company engineers continued development of the Strowger designs and submitted several patents in the names of its employees.

The Strowger system was widely used until the development of the more reliable crossbar switch, an electromechanical switch with a matrix of vertical and horizontal bars and simpler motions.


Born On This Day

1867 – Lillian Wald, American nurse, humanitarian, and author, founded the Henry Street Settlement (d. 1940)
Lillian D. Wald (March 10, 1867 – September 1, 1940) was an American nurse, humanitarian and author. She was known for contributions to human rights and was the founder of American community nursing.[1] She founded the Henry Street Settlement in New York City and was an early advocate to have nurses in public schools.

After growing up in Ohio and New York, Wald became a nurse. She briefly attended medical school and began to teach community health classes. After founding the Henry Street Settlement, she became an activist for the rights of women and minorities. She campaigned for suffrage and was a supporter of racial integration. She was involved in the founding of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

Wald died in 1940 at the age of 73.

Early life and education
Wald was born into a German-Jewish middle-class family in Cincinnati, Ohio; her father was an optical dealer. In 1878, she moved with her family to Rochester, New York. She attended Miss Cruttenden’s English-French Boarding and Day School for Young Ladies. She applied to Vassar College at the age of 16, but the school thought that she was too young. In 1889, she attended New York Hospital’s School of Nursing. She graduated from the New York Hospital Training School for Nurses in 1891, then took courses at the Woman’s Medical College.[2]

Nursing career
Wald worked for a time at the New York Juvenile Asylum (now Children’s Village), an orphanage where conditions were poor. By 1893, she left medical school and started to teach a home class on nursing for poor immigrant families on New York City’s Lower East Side at the Hebrew Technical School for Girls. Shortly thereafter, she began to care for sick Lower East Side residents as a visiting nurse. Along with another nurse, Mary Brewster, she moved into a spartan room near her patients, in order to care for them better. Around that time she coined the term “public health nurse” to describe nurses whose work is integrated into the public community.[3]

Wald advocated for nursing in public schools. Her ideas led the New York Board of Health to organize the first public nursing system in the world. She was the first president of the National Organization for Public Health Nursing. Wald established a nursing insurance partnership with Metropolitan Life Insurance Company that became a model for many other corporate projects. She suggested a national health insurance plan and helped to found the Columbia University School of Nursing.[2] Wald authored two books relating to her community health work, The House on Henry Street (1911) and Windows on Henry Street (1934).

Wald founded the Henry Street Settlement. The organization attracted the attention of prominent Jewish philanthropist Jacob Schiff, who secretly provided Wald with money to more effectively help the “poor Russian Jews” whose care she provided. By 1906 Wald had 27 nurses on staff, and she succeeded in attracting broader financial support from such gentiles as Elizabeth Milbank Anderson.[4] By 1913 the staff had grown to 92 people. The Henry Street Settlement eventually developed as the Visiting Nurse Service of New York.[5]

The Henry Street Settlement
Wald’s vision for Henry Street was one unlike any others at the time. Wald believed that every New York City resident was entitled to equal and fair health care regardless of their social status, socio-economic status, race, gender, or age[6]. She argued that everyone should have access to at-home-care. A strong advocate for adequate bed-side manner, Wald believed that regardless of if a person could afford at-home-care, they deserved to be treated with the same level of respect that some who could afford it would be.

Social benefits of the Henry Street Settlement
Arguably one of the most significant changes to the public health sector, the Settlement did much more than just provide better medical care. Primarily focusing on the care of women and children, the Settlement changed the way public health care was in New York City. These programs helped to cut back on time patients spent at hospitals while also making at-home-care more accessible and efficient[6].

Wald was a strong advocate for community support. Much of the Henry Street Settlement’s initial success was from Wald’s diligent and persistent work at cultivating personal relationships with the Settlement’s donors. Wald was also a strong advocate for the social benefit of having donors who dwelled within the community. These benefits included the temporary break-up of families when people were forced to spend time in the hospital, improved the quality of at-home-care, and reduced medical expenses by offering an alternative to hospital stays[7].

Employment of women
Wald provided a unique opportunity for women and employment through the Settlement. In her letters, she speaks with donors about the employment opportunities that are provided to women through the Settlement and the many benefits they offer. One of the most notable benefits was the opportunity for women to have a career and to build their own wealth independent of husbands or families.[5] Employment also provided women with the opportunity to gain independence from their husbands and work outside of the home.




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Ruth Hensinger ‘s Wedding Dress

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Courtesy of Just A Car Guy: turn up the volume


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907 Updates March 10, 2018

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By Craig Medred: Iditarod dangers
Back home in Minnesota now with the memory of a near-death experience along the Iditarod Trail unlikely to fade for a long, long time, Scott Hoberg finds himself a man deeply humbled by Alaska’s vast, winter wilderness

And thankful to be alive. Very thankful.

FYI March 09, 2018



On This Day

1925 – Pink’s War: The first Royal Air Force operation conducted independently of the British Army or Royal Navy begins.

Pink’s War was an air-to-ground bombardment and strafing campaign carried out by the Royal Air Force, under the command of Wing Commander Richard Pink, against the mountain strongholds of Mahsud tribesmen in South Waziristan in March and April 1925.[2]

The defence of the North-West Frontier Province was an important task for British India. In the 1920s, the British were engaged in a continuing effort to pacify militant tribesmen in the province. In July 1924 the British mounted operations against several of the Mahsud tribes in southern Waziristan and by October they had mostly been subdued. Only the Abdur Rahman Khel tribe and three other supporting tribes continued to attack British Indian Army posts.[3]

The fledgling RAF was keen to establish its military credentials and the air officer commanding in India, Sir Edward Ellington, made the unprecedented decision to conduct air operations against the tribesmen without the support of the army.[3]

Bristol Fighters and de Havilland DH.9As from No. 5, 27 and 60 squadrons were deployed to the airstrips at Miranshah and Tank.[3] Operations commenced on 9 March 1925,[4] and the RAF squadrons strafed tribal mountain strongholds in a successful attempt to crush the rebellion.[2]

On 1 May 1925, the tribal leaders sought an honourable peace, bringing the short campaign to a close.[2] Only two British lives and one aircraft were lost during the campaign.[2][3] Pink’s War was the first air action of the RAF carried out independent of the army or navy.[2]

After the campaign was over, the India General Service Medal with the Waziristan 1925 bar was awarded to the 46 officers and 214 men of the Royal Air Force who took part in Pink’s War. It was by far the rarest bar given with an India General Service Medal and was only awarded after the then Chief of the Air Staff Sir John Salmond succeeded in overturning the War Office decision not to grant a medal for the campaign.[5] The campaign’s commander, Wing Commander Pink, received speedy promotion to group captain “in recognition of his services in the field of Waziristan”.[1][6][7] For distinguished service during Pink’s War, Squadron Leader Arthur John Capel was awarded the Distinguished Service Order, the Distinguished Flying Cross was awarded to flight lieutenants John Baker and William Cumming, and Flying Officer Reginald Pyne, and the Distinguished Flying Medal was given to sergeant pilots George Campbell and Ralph Hawkins, Sergeant Arthur Rutherford, Corporal Reginald Robins, and Leading Aircraftman Alfred Walmsley.[8] A further 14 men were mentioned in despatches, including flying officers Edward Dashwood and Noel Hayter-Hames, who both lost their lives in the campaign.[8]


Born On This Day

1814 – Taras Shevchenko, Ukrainian poet and playwright (d. 1861)
Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko[6] (March 9 [O.S. February 25] 1814 – March 10 [O.S. February 26] 1861) was a Ukrainian poet, writer, artist, public and political figure, as well as folklorist and ethnographer. His literary heritage is regarded to be the foundation of modern Ukrainian literature and, to a large extent, the modern Ukrainian language. Shevchenko is also known for many masterpieces as a painter and an illustrator.[7]

He was a member of the Sts Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood and an academician of the Imperial Academy of Arts. In 1847 Shevchenko was politically convicted for writing in the Ukrainian language, promoting the independence of Ukraine and ridiculing the members of the Russian Imperial House.[8]




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FYI March 08, 2018



On This Day

1910 – French aviator Raymonde de Laroche becomes the first woman to receive a pilot’s license.
Raymonde de Laroche (22 August 1882 – 18 July 1919), born Elise Raymonde Deroche, was a French pilot and the first woman in the world to receive an aeroplane pilot’s licence.

Early life
Born on 22 August 1882 in Paris, Elise Raymonde Deroche was the daughter of a plumber. She had a fondness for sports as a child, as well as for motorcycles and automobiles when she was older. As a young woman she became an actress and used the stage name “Raymonde de Laroche”. Inspired by Wilbur Wright’s 1908 demonstrations of powered flight in Paris and being personally acquainted with several aviators, including artist-turned-aviator Léon Delagrange, who was reputed to be the father of her son André, de Laroche determined to take up flying for herself.[1]:9–10

Achievements in aviation

In October 1909, de Laroche appealed to her friend, aviator and aeroplane builder Charles Voisin, to instruct her in how to fly. On 22 October 1909, de Laroche went to the Voisin brothers’ base of operations at Chalons, 90 miles (140 km) east of Paris. Voisin’s aircraft could seat only one person, so she operated the plane by herself while he stood on the ground and gave instructions. After she mastered taxiing around the airfield, she lifted off and flew 300 yards (270 m).[1]:11–13 De Laroche’s flight is often cited as the first by a woman in a powered heavier-than-air craft; there is evidence that two other women, P. Van Pottelsberghe and Thérèse Peltier, had flown the previous year with Henri Farman and Delagrange respectively as passengers but not as pilots.[2]

Decades later, aviation journalist Harry Harper wrote that until de Laroche made her celebrated flight on the Voisin, she had only flown once, for a short hop, as a passenger; when she first took the controls, Charles Voisin expressly forbade her to attempt a flight; and after taxiing twice across the airfield, she took off, flying “ten or fifteen feet high” and handling the controls with “cool, quick precision”.[3]

Although Gabriel Voisin wrote, “… my brother [was] entirely under her thumb”,[4] the story of de Laroche as a headstrong woman making the flight after scant preparation and against Voisin’s orders almost certainly romanticises what actually took place. Flight magazine, a week after the flight, reported: “For some time the Baroness has been taking lessons from M. Chateau, the Voisin instructor, at Chalons, and on Friday of last week she was able to take the wheel for the first time. This initial voyage into the air was only a very short one, and terra firma was regained after 300 yards (270 m).”[5] Flight was also responsible for bestowing the title “Baroness” upon de Laroche, as she was not of noble birth.[1]:9 Flight added that on the following day she circled the flying field twice, “the turnings being made with consummate ease. During this flight of about four miles (6 km) there was a strong gusty wind blowing, but after the first two turnings the Baroness said that it did not bother her, as she had the machine completely under control.”[5]

On 8 March 1910,[1]:14 de Laroche became the first woman in the world to receive a pilot licence when the Aero-Club of France issued her licence #36 of the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (International Aeronautics Federation or F.A.I.).

De Laroche participated in aviation meetings at Heliopolis in Egypt as well as Saint Petersburg, Budapest and Rouen. During the show in St. Petersburg, she was personally congratulated by Tsar Nicholas II. There, she was presented once again as “Baroness” de Laroche. Thereafter, the title became commonly used.[1]:16

In July 1910, de Laroche was participating in the week-long airshow at Reims in France. On 8 July, her aeroplane crashed, and she suffered such severe injuries that her recovery was in doubt, but two years later, she was fit again and had returned to flying. On 26 September 1912, she and Charles Voisin were involved in a car crash. Voisin was killed, and she was severely injured.[6]

On 25 November 1913 de Laroche won the Aero-Club of France’s Femina Cup for a non-stop long-distance flight of over 4 hours duration.[7]

During World War I, as flying was considered too dangerous for women, she served as a military driver, chauffeuring officers from the rear zones to the front under fire.[1]:20

In June 1919 de Laroche set two women’s altitude records,[8] one at 15,700 feet (4,800 m); and also the women’s distance record, at 201 miles (323 km).[1]:21

Death and legacy

On 18 July 1919 de Laroche, who was a talented engineer, went to the airfield at Le Crotoy as part of her plan to become the first professional woman test pilot. She co-piloted an experimental aircraft (whether she flew this is not known); on its landing approach the aeroplane went into a dive and crashed, killing both de Laroche and the co-pilot.

There is a statue of de Laroche at Le Bourget Airport in France.

From 6 March to 12 March 2010, to celebrate the Centennial of Licensed Women Pilots, women pilots from eight countries on three continents used 20 types of aircraft to establish a new world record: 225 girls and women introduced to piloting by a woman pilot in one week.

Women Of Aviation Worldwide Week is held annually during the week including 8 March, which marks the anniversary of Raymonde de Laroche’s pilot licence and International Women’s Day, and aims to foster diversity in aviation by celebrating women’s history, raising awareness of aviation’s opportunities among girls and women, and shaping the future by introducing girls and women to aviation through industry-wide collaboration.


Born On This Day

1896 – Charlotte Whitton, Canadian journalist and politician, 46th Mayor of Ottawa (d. 1975)
Charlotte Elizabeth Whitton OC CBE (March 8, 1896 – January 25, 1975) was a Canadian feminist and mayor of Ottawa. She was the first woman mayor of a major city in Canada, serving from 1951 to 1956 and again from 1960 to 1964.

Career and accomplishments
Whitton attended Queen’s University, where she was the star of the women’s hockey team and was known as the fastest skater in the league.[citation needed] At Queen’s, she also served as editor of the Queen’s Journal newspaper in 1917; and was the newspaper’s first female editor. From Queen’s she became the founding director of the Canadian Council on Child Welfare from 1920 to 1941 (which became the Canadian Welfare Council, now the Canadian Council on Social Development) and helped bring about a wide array of new legislation to help children.

Despite her strong views on women’s equality, Whitton was a strong social conservative and did not support making divorce easier.

Whitton was elected to Ottawa’s Board of Control in 1951. Upon the unexpected death of mayor Grenville Goodwin that August, Whitton was immediately appointed acting mayor and on 30 September 1951 was confirmed by city council to remain mayor until the end of the normal three-year term. Whitton is sometimes mistakenly credited as the first woman ever to serve as a mayor in Canada,[2] but this distinction is in fact held by Barbara Hanley, who became mayor of the small Northern Ontario town of Webbwood in 1936.[3]

Whitton was a staunch defender of Canada’s traditions, and condemned Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson’s proposal in 1964 for new national flag to replace the traditional Canadian Red Ensign. Whitton dismissed Pearson’s design as a ‘white badge of surrender, waving three dying maple leaves’ which might as well be ‘three white feathers on a red background,’ a symbol of cowardice. ‘It is a poor observance of our first century as a nation if we run up a flag of surrender with three dying maple leaves on it,’ she said.[4][5] For Whitton, the Red Ensign, with its Union Jack and coat of arms containing symbols of England, Scotland, Ireland and France (or a similar flag with traditional symbols on it) would be a stronger embodiment of the Canadian achievement in peace and war.

She became well known for her assertiveness and for her vicious wit with which many male colleagues, and once the Lord Mayor of London, were attacked. She is noted for the quotation: “Whatever women do they must do twice as well as men to be thought half as good. Luckily, this is not difficult.”

In 1955 she appeared on the American game show and television series What’s My Line.[6]

In 1934, Whitton was named a Commander of the British Empire at the 1934 New Year Honours[7] and was made an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1967.[8]

Accusations of racism

Whitton had many remarkable achievements but her story is framed by current controversy over some of her actions.

She has been accused in print of espousing, “a ‘scientific’ racism that viewed groups such as Jews and Armenians as ‘undesirable’ immigrants.” (Open Your Hearts: The Story of the Jewish War Orphans in Canada by Fraidie Martz)[9]

In 1938, she attended a conference in Ottawa to launch the Canadian National Committee on Refugees (CNCR). She showed opposition to some of the other attendees’ arguments. A common belief is that she was directly opposed to Jews and in particular Jewish children. Oscar Cohen of the Canadian Jewish Congress is reported to have said she “almost broke up the inaugural meeting of the congress on refugees by her insistent opposition and very apparent anti-Semitism.”[10] This sentiment is countered by the official record which includes notes from her presentation, including “lobby the government to initiate a long-term refugee program …” and an interest in protecting all at risk, “particularly Hebrews in the Reich and in Italy.”[11]

According to the Canadian Jewish Congress: “Certainly in the course of the Second World War and the Holocaust, she was instrumental in keeping Jewish orphans out of Canada because of her belief that Jews would not make good immigrants and were basically inferior.”[12]

As Mayor in 1964, she declined Bertram Loeb’s $500,000 donation to the City’s Ottawa Civic Hospital. The official rationale was that the city could not afford to keep the centre operating.[11] The sentiment exists that she “simply didn’t want the name of a Jewish family on an Ottawa hospital building.”.[10]

According to Patricia Rooke, Whitton was a “complete anglophile” who opposed all non-British immigration to Canada. “Charlotte Whitton was a racist,” according to Rooke. “Her anti-Semitism, I think, was the least of it. She was quite racist about the Ukrainians, for example. She really didn’t like the changing character of Canadian society.”[12]

In opposition to the anti-Semite argument, Whitton was well received by various Jewish organizations in her lifetime including B’nai B’rith and various Jewish-centred publications.[11] She was also a supporter of — and the first to sign the nomination papers of — the first Jewish Mayor of Ottawa, Lorry Greenberg.[11]

In 2011 Whitton’s name was kept off of a new Archives Building in Ottawa due to this controversy.[13]

Personal life
Whitton never married, but lived for years with her partner, Margaret Grier (1892 – December 9, 1947). Her relationship with Grier was not widespread public knowledge until 1999, 24 years after Whitton’s death, when the National Archives of Canada publicly released the last of her personal papers, including many intimate personal letters between Whitton and Grier. The release of these papers sparked much debate in the Canadian media about whether Whitton and Grier’s relationship could be characterized as lesbian, or merely as an emotionally intimate friendship between two unmarried women.[14] Grier died in 1947 and is buried at Thompson Hill Cemetery, Thompson Hill, Horton, Ontario, Canada. In 1975 Whitton was buried alongside her.


Whitton’s relationship with Grier was dramatized in a play called Molly’s Veil written by playwright Sharon Bajer.[15] Bajer was inspired to write the play after reading letters written between Whitton and Grier and used these as the basis for the play.[16] The play explores Whitton’s relationship with her partner Grier, portraying Whitton as a loving partner in a lesbian relationship and deals with the tension between Whitton’s private life and her public one.[17][18]

The Ontario Heritage Trust erected a plaque for Charlotte Elizabeth Whitton, O.C., C.B.E. 1896-1975 in the council chambers, city hall, 111 Sussex Drive, Ottawa. “A controversial fighter for social reform, Charlotte Whitton served on the Canadian Council on Child Welfare (later the Canadian Welfare Council) and on the League of Nations Social Questions Committee. In 1951, she was elected mayor of Ottawa.” [19]



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FYI March 07, 2018



On This Day

1277 – Stephen Tempier, bishop of Paris, condemns 219 philosophical and theological theses.
Étienne (Stephen) Tempier (French: [tɑ̃pje]; also known as Stephanus of Orleans; died 3 September 1279) was a French bishop of Paris during the 13th century. He was Chancellor of the Sorbonne from 1263 and bishop of Paris from 1268.[1]

He is best remembered for promulgating a Condemnation of 219 philosophical and theological propositions (or articles) that addressed concepts that were being disputed in the faculty of arts at the University of Paris.

Born in Orléans, Tempier studied in Paris, where he became master of theology and canon of Notre Dame. During a period of about five years (1263–ca. 1268), Tempier was the Chancellor of the chapter of Notre Dame at Paris, succeeding Erich von Veire. At that time, the Chancellor of the Chapter was also the Chancellor of the University of Paris.

He served as bishop of Paris from 7 October 1268 until his death on 3 September 1279. Tempier had been a master in the faculty of theology.

In 1270 Tempier, encouraged by Henry of Ghent (died 1293), had issued a formal condemnation of thirteen doctrines held by “radical Aristotelians.” These included the unity of intellect, causal necessity, and the eternity of the world. Further investigation into perceived errors then prevalent at the university was prompted by the Portuguese cleric Juliani, who was elected Pope John XXI on 13 September 1276.[2] A former professor of theology at the University of Paris, he wrote Tempier on 28 January 1277.[3] The pope told Tempier that he had heard reports of heretical opinions in the Paris area, and requested to be informed of the situation. By this time Tempier was already investigating possible heretical opinions at the University of Paris.[4]

On 7 March 1277, Tempier expanded the number of condemned doctrines to 219. He was assisted by a commission of theologians from the University. Henry of Ghent sat on Tempier’s episcopal commission (assessores episcopi) of sixteen masters, which produced the syllabus of 219 propositions comdemned by Tempier on 7 March 1277. The condemnations against Aristotelianism in Paris involved Giles of Rome, Siger of Brabant, the arts faculty, and certain doctrines of Thomas Aquinas.[5] The forty-ninth item on the list was the assertion that God is incapable of moving the universe because it implies the existence of a void.[6]

Tempier also overturned Aristotle on one point: God could have created more than one world (given His omnipotence) yet we know by revelation He made only one. Tempier’s stress on God’s omnipotence also opened up all kinds of possibilities for the understanding of the cosmos. In his effort to defend the abilities and unique rights of the Creator, Tempier’s propositions led to the new approach taken to understand the workings of celestial and terrestrial bodies. By rejecting that astral bodies were animated, incorruptible and eternal, refuting the idea that their motion was the result of something comparable to animal desires and denying that stars had any influence over individuals, he showed that Christians were prepared to refute Aristotle’s world view along with some basic assumptions held by Greek learning.

It is not clear what Tempier’s intentions were in issuing this condemnation. Nevertheless, scholars have written that “the Parisian Condemnation of 1277 is symbolic of an intellectual crisis in the University. It is indicative of fundamental shifts in speculative thought and cultural perception which occurred in the late 13th century, which portend aspects of modern thought.”[7]

Opposition to and repeal
Tempier’s prohibitions did not curtail the free discussion of Thomist doctrines and did little to limit their influence at the University of Paris.[2] His decree was actively opposed and eventually overturned in 1325.[6]

See also
Godfrey of Fontaines
Omnipotence paradox


Born On This Day

1886 – G. I. Taylor, English mathematician and physicist (d. 1975)
Sir Geoffrey Ingram Taylor OM (7 March 1886 – 27 June 1975) was a British physicist and mathematician, and a major figure in fluid dynamics and wave theory. His biographer and one-time student, George Batchelor, described him as “one of the most notable scientists of this (the 20th) century”.[4][5][6][7]

Early life and education
Taylor was born in St. John’s Wood, London. His father, Edward Ingram Taylor, was an artist, and his mother, Margaret Boole, came from a family of mathematicians (his aunt was Alicia Boole Stott and his grandfather was George Boole). As a child he was fascinated by science after attending the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures, and performed experiments using paint rollers and sticky-tape. Taylor read mathematics and physics at Trinity College, Cambridge from 1905 to 1908. Then he obtained a schlorship to continue at Cambridge under J.J. Thomson.

Career and research
Taylor is best known to students of physics for his very first paper,[8] published while he was still an undergraduate, in which he showed that interference of visible light produced fringes even with extremely weak light sources. The interference effects were produced with light from a gas light, attenuated through a series of dark glass plates, diffracting around a sewing needle. Three months were required to produce a sufficient exposure of the photographic plate, and legend has it that during this time Taylor went punting on the Cam. The paper does not mention quanta of light (photons) and does not reference Einstein’s 1905 paper on the photoelectric effect, but today the result can be interpreted by saying that less than one photon on average was present at a time. Once it became widely accepted ca. 1927 that the electromagnetic field was quantized, Taylor’s experiment began to be presented in pedagogical treatments as evidence that interference effects with light cannot be interpreted in terms of one photon interfering with another photon — that, in fact, a single photon must travel through both slits of a double-slit apparatus. Modern understanding of the subject has shown that the conditions in Taylor’s experiment were not in fact sufficient to demonstrate this, because the light source was not in fact a single-photon source, but the experiment was reproduced in 1986 using a single-photon source, and the same result was obtained.[9]

He followed this up with work on shock waves,[citation needed] winning a Smith’s Prize. In 1910 he was elected to a Fellowship at Trinity College, and the following year he was appointed to a meteorology post, becoming Reader in Dynamical Meteorology. His work on turbulence in the atmosphere led to the publication of “Turbulent motion in fluids”,[citation needed] which won him the Adams Prize in 1915.

In 1913 Taylor served as a meteorologist aboard the Ice Patrol vessel Scotia, where his observations formed the basis of his later work on a theoretical model of mixing of the air. At the outbreak of World War I, he was sent to the Royal Aircraft Factory at Farnborough to apply his knowledge to aircraft design, working, amongst other things, on the stress on propeller shafts. Not content just to sit back and do the science, he also learned to fly aeroplanes and make parachute jumps.

After the war Taylor returned to Trinity and worked on an application of turbulent flow to oceanography. He also worked on the problem of bodies passing through a rotating fluid. In 1923 he was appointed to a Royal Society research professorship as a Yarrow Research Professor. This enabled him to stop teaching, which he had been doing for the previous four years, and which he both disliked and had no great aptitude for. It was in this period that he did his most wide-ranging work on fluid mechanics and solid mechanics, including research on the deformation of crystalline materials which followed from his war work at Farnborough. He also produced another major contribution to turbulent flow, where he introduced a new approach through a statistical study of velocity fluctuations.

In 1934, Taylor, roughly contemporarily with Michael Polanyi and Egon Orowan, realised that the plastic deformation of ductile materials could be explained in terms of the theory of dislocations developed by Vito Volterra in 1905. The insight was critical in developing the modern science of solid mechanics.

Manhattan Project
During World War II, Taylor again applied his expertise to military problems such as the propagation of blast waves, studying both waves in air and underwater explosions. Taylor was sent to the United States in 1944–1945 as part of the British delegation to the Manhattan Project. At Los Alamos, Taylor helped solve implosion instability problems in the development of atomic weapons particularly the plutonium bomb used at Nagasaki on 9 August 1945.

In 1944 he also received his knighthood and the Copley Medal from the Royal Society.

Taylor was present at the Trinity (nuclear test), July 16, 1945, as part of General Leslie Groves’ “VIP List” of just 10 people who observed the test from Compania Hill, about 20 miles (32 km) northwest of the shot tower. By a strange twist, Joan Hinton, another direct descendant of the mathematician, George Boole, had been working on the same project and witnessed the event in an unofficial capacity. They met at the time but later followed different paths: Joan, strongly opposed to nuclear weapons, to defect to Mao’s China, Taylor to hold throughout his career the view that governmental policy was not within the remit of the scientist.[10]

In 1950, he published two papers estimating the yield of the explosion using the Buckingham Pi theorem, and high speed photography stills from that test, bearing timestamps and physical scale of the blast radius, which had been published in Life magazine. His estimate of 22 kt was remarkably close to the accepted value of 20 kt, which was still highly classified at that time.

Later life
Taylor continued his research after the war, serving on the Aeronautical Research Committee and working on the development of supersonic aircraft. Though he officially retired in 1952, he continued research for the next twenty years, concentrating on problems that could be attacked using simple equipment. This led to such advances as a method for measuring the second coefficient of viscosity.[citation needed] Taylor devised an incompressible liquid with separated gas bubbles suspended in it.[citation needed] The dissipation of the gas in the liquid during expansion was a consequence of the shear viscosity of the liquid. Thus the bulk viscosity could easily be calculated. His other late work[citation needed] included the longitudinal dispersion in flow in tubes, movement through porous surfaces, and the dynamics of sheets of liquids.

Aspects of Taylor’s life often found expression in his work. His over-riding interest in the movement of air and water, and by extension his studies of the movement of unicellular marine creatures and of weather, were related to his lifelong love of sailing. In the 1930s he invented the ‘CQR’ anchor, which was both stronger and more manageable than any in use, and which was used for all sorts of small craft including seaplanes.[11]

His final research paper[citation needed] was published in 1969, when he was 83. In it he resumed his interest in electrical activity in thunderstorms, as jets of conducting liquid motivated by electrical fields. The cone from which such jets are observed is called the Taylor cone, after him. In the same year Taylor received the A. A. Griffith Medal and Prize and was appointed to the Order of Merit.

Personal life
Taylor married Stephanie Ravenhill, a school teacher in 1925. They stayed together until Stephanie’s death in 1965. He suffered a severe stroke in 1972 which effectively put an end to his work; he died in Cambridge in 1975.



By Bryan Menegus: Amazon Slashes Prime Fees for Medicaid Enrollees in Play for Low-Income Customers
Rebecca At Soap Deli News: It’s Coming Up Roses & Spring Is On The Way!
By Colin Marshall: The Case for Writing in Coffee Shops: Why Malcolm Gladwell Does It, and You Should Too
By Heather Chapman: Mobile tele-hospitals can help rural areas after disasters
AMD President Eric Bacon told Settles that MAST units (formally called Jenysis Healthcare Solutions) avoid the logistical headache of trying to give people modern treatment in remote areas with spotty or no telephone access. The units can be delivered by truck or helicopter and can be fully assembled in 15 minutes. They’re completely self-contained with water, solar panels for power, HVAC, satellite communications, and broadband connection ports. The basic units are set up for easy access to telemedicine services. And communities can customize the units with other equipment for specialized needs such as pediatric care.
By Gary Price: A New Project From Research4Life Launches: Global Online Access to Legal Information (GOALI)

By Gary Price: Video Recordings of Two Panel Discussions From the Radio Preservation Task Force 2 Conference Now Available Online
By John N. Berry, III: You are here: Home / Paralibrarian of the Year 2018: Orquidea Olvera Paralibrarian of the Year 2018: Orquidea Olvera
Olvera grew up in the Watts neighborhood of Los ­Angeles. “Sadly, what you hear about Watts is true,” says ­Olvera. Several of her brothers’ friends were murdered in the neighborhood. “My mother tried to get us out of there as soon as she could,” something she achieved when Olvera was 15. Until then, her mother spent much time shielding her and her five brothers and one sister from trouble. One important resource to help do so was the library.

“The Los Angeles libraries played a huge part in my life. This is why I love libraries. I used to go to the Martin Luther King Library, a branch in Watts. We had to cross a railroad [track] to get to it. They always had free programs, and my mom would take us to them. We learned how to use the library computers and went to any programs they offered,” Olvera says.
By Emily Canal: How a Young CEO Turned His Family’s Failing, Third-Generation Business Into the No. 2 Egg Brand in America
By Cara Maines: World’s tallest offshore wind turbine will tower over iconic buildings
Product Hunt: When tech and jewelry collide: the maker of Hexatope shares her story








FYI March 06, 2018



On This Day

1869 – Dmitri Mendeleev presents the first periodic table to the Russian Chemical Society.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose adopted structure shows periodic trends. Generally, within one row (period) the elements are metals on the left, and non-metals on the right, with the elements having similar chemical behaviours being placed in the same column. Table rows are commonly called periods and columns are called groups. Six groups have accepted names as well as assigned numbers: for example, group 17 elements are halogens; and group 18 are noble gases. Also displayed are four simple rectangular areas or blocks associated with some approximately similar chemical properties.

Importantly, the organization of the periodic table can be utilized to derive relationships between various element properties, but also predicted chemical properties and behaviours of undiscovered or newly synthesized elements. Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev was first to publish a recognizable periodic table in 1869, developed mainly to illustrate periodic trends of the then-known elements. He also predicted some properties of unidentified elements that were expected to fill gaps within this table. Most of his forecasts proved to be correct. Mendeleev’s idea has been slowly expanded and refined with the discovery or synthesis of further new elements and by developing new theoretical models to explain chemical behaviour. The modern periodic table now provides a useful framework for analyzing chemical reactions, and continues to be widely adopted in chemistry, nuclear physics and other sciences.

All elements ranging from atomic numbers 1 (hydrogen) to 118 (oganesson) have been either discovered or synthesized. Most of the recent elements, including nihonium, moscovium, tennessine, and oganesson, were confirmed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) in 2015 and officially named in 2016, and now complete the first seven rows of the periodic table.[1][2] The first 94 elements exist naturally, although some are found only in trace amounts and were synthesized in laboratories before being found in nature.[n 1] Atomic numbers for elements 95 to 118 have only been synthesized in laboratories or nuclear reactors.[3] Synthesis of elements having higher atomic numbers are still being pursued. Numerous synthetic radionuclides of naturally occurring elements have also been produced in laboratories



Born On This Day

1910 – Ella Logan, Scottish-American singer and actress (d. 1969)
Ella Logan (6 March 1910 – 1 May 1969) was a Scottish-American actress and singer who appeared on Broadway, recorded and had a nightclub career in the United States and internationally.

Early years
She was born as Georgina Allan in Glasgow in 1910 (although she later shaved three years off her age.[1]), where she was raised. She began performing under the name Ella Allan as a child.[2]

She went on to become a band singer in music halls. Aged 20, she made her debut in 1930 in the West End of London in Darling! I Love You. She toured Europe in the early 1930s. Logan eventually emigrated to the U.S. and began to sing at various clubs and to record jazz on the British Columbia label (part of EMI).[citation needed]

She then appeared in several Hollywood films, including Flying Hostess (1936), 52nd Street (1937) and The Goldwyn Follies (1938). She appeared in several Broadway shows in the 1930s and early 1940s, but traveled to Europe and then Africa during World War II to entertain the troops. She also appeared on The Ed Wynn Show and The Colgate Comedy Hour in the 1940s and 1950s.

Logan returned to Broadway in 1947 starring as Sharon McLonergan in the original production of Finian’s Rainbow, singing the show’s most famous song, “How Are Things in Glocca Morra?”, among others. The production ran for 725 performances. She did not return to Broadway after that. In 1954, she was cast in a proposed animated film adaptation of Finian’s Rainbow and re-recorded the score with Frank Sinatra. But the film was canceled, and the recordings were not released until the 2002 box set Sinatra in Hollywood 1940-1964.

The original cast album was released in 1948, and was Capitol Records’ first Original Cast album. She recorded the show’s songs for a second time in 1954 for the LP Ella Logan Sings Favorites from Finian’s Rainbow, accompanied by pianist George Greeley. It was released by Capitol Records in 1955, (H-561 in the US, and L-561 in Australia).[3] This was the second of her two solo albums.

In the 1950s, she became an international nightclub performer, appearing at such venues as the Copacabana and the Waldorf-Astoria in New York as well as in London and Paris.[citation needed] She appeared on television in May 1956, in London with Louis Armstrong and His All-Stars. In 1965 she was part of the cast of the infamous Broadway flop, Kelly, until her role was cut during out of town tryouts. She continued to work occasionally in clubs, on television, and in theatrical stock productions, into the 1960s.[4]

Her first husband was Charles John Lepsch. She married, secondly, to Fred Finklehoffe, a playwright and producer, from 1942 until the marriage dissolved in either 1954[2] or 1956.[citation needed] She had no children by either marriage. Her niece is the actress/chanteuse Annie Ross and her nephew was Jimmy Logan, a Scottish actor.[5]

Ella Logan died of cancer in Burlingame, California, aged 59.


By Alanis King: NASCAR Will Be In Two Time Zones This Weekend Because Arizona Ignores Daylight Saving Time

By Katie Conger and Dell Cameron: Google Is Helping the Pentagon Build AI for Drones
By George Dvorsky: US Aircraft Carrier Sunk in WW2 Battle Finally Found Off Australian Coast
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By Ari Phillips: What We Can Learn From the Demise of the Northern White Rhino
By Jennings Brown: ‘Free Exotic Animals’: Dozens of Animals Stolen From Wildlife Sanctuary After Fake Craigslist Ad

By LanceBuilt: Classic GMC Motorhome Repurposed for Elder Care
By Kate Sierzputowski: Long Exposure Photos Capture the Light Paths of Drones Above Mountainous Landscapes
By Nikki Lynn Barrett: I love You, I hate you…The Life Cycle of Writing a book

By Elizabeth Weise: Women create alternate tech conference, protesting snub at big security confab
Ilene Price: Sunrise Hiking in Panama
By Heather Chapman: Reporting package on rape in Okla. up for Scripps Howard award for community journalism; announcement today
Tulsa-based digital newspaper The Frontier is in the running for a Scripps Howard Award for its five-part series “Shadow Land: How rape stays hidden in Oklahoma.”

The Frontier’s year-long investigation uncovered “a war within a war that requires some victims to fight for their own justice while government and private agencies fight for money, personnel and proven training methods to assist victims,” Mary Hargrove and Kassie McClung report. “Victims can fall prey to overworked nurses, police and prosecutors in rural counties who do not have the time, training or manpower to thoroughly investigate. And their cases die.”

Oklahoma’s shortcomings are reflected in most states, and so are the possible solutions, Hargrove and McClung report.

The other two finalists in the Community Journalism category are “Home Sick” by the Capital News Service of the University of Maryland and “Addicted at Birth” by the Bristol Herald Courier in Bristol, Va., noted on The Rural Blog yesterday. All the award winners will be announced at 2 p.m. today.
By Gary Price: New Report from OCLC Research: “An Exploration of the Irish Presence in the Published Record”
By Gary Price: IMLS Names 29 Finalists for National Medal for Museum and Library Service





By VespressoCooking: Cloud Bread (Gluten-Free & Low Carb)



FYI March 05, 2018



On This Day

1046 – Nasir Khusraw begins the seven-year Middle Eastern journey which he will later describe in his book Safarnama.
bu Mo’in Hamid ad-Din Nasir ibn Khusraw al-Qubadiani or Nāsir Khusraw Qubādiyānī Balkhi [also spelled as Nasir Khusrow and Naser Khosrow] (1004 – 1088 CE) (Persian: ناصر خسرو قبادیانی‎) was a Persian poet,[2][3] philosopher, Isma’ili scholar,[4][5] traveler and one of the greatest writers in Persian literature. He was born in Qabodiyon, (Qabādiyān), a village in Bactria in the ancient Greater Iranian province of Khorasan,[6][7] now in modern Tajikistan[8] and died in Yamagan, now Afghanistan.
He is considered one of the great poets and writers in Persian literature. The Safarnama, an account of his travels, is his most famous work and remains required reading in Iran even today.[9]

Born On This Day

1830 – Étienne-Jules Marey, French physiologist and chronophotographer (d. 1904)
Étienne-Jules Marey (French: [maʁɛ]; 5 March 1830, Beaune, Côte-d’Or – 15 May 1904,[1] Paris) was a French scientist, physiologist and chronophotographer.
His work was significant in the development of cardiology, physical instrumentation, aviation, cinematography and the science of laboratory photography. He is widely considered to be a pioneer of photography and an influential pioneer of the history of cinema. He was also a pioneer in establishing a variety of graphical techniques for the display and interpretation of quantitative data from physiological measurement.[2]




Trevor Baylis: Wind-up radio inventor dies aged 80

Trevor Graham Baylis CBE (13 May 1937 – 5 March 2018) was an English inventor. He was best known for inventing the wind-up radio. Rather than using batteries or external electrical source, the radio is powered by the user winding a crank for several seconds. This stores energy in a spring which then drives an electrical generator to operate the radio receiver. He invented it in response to the need to communicate information about AIDS to the people of Africa.[2] He ran Trevor Baylis Brands plc, a company dedicated to helping inventors to develop and protect their ideas and to find a route to market.[3]

Why the Hell Is Facebook Surveying Users About Child Predators?By Melanie Ehrenkranz:
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Messy Nessy: Camels crossing the highway in UAE desert, Chicago has a large pack of coyotes that patrol the city hunting rats, That time the Soviet Union decided to Domesticate Wild Moose (and the farm that’s still up and running) and more
Atlas Obscura: Using Knot Forensics to Find Criminals, Recipes Revealed, Mountain West Museum and more
By Max Rottersman: That Loser Woman Mathematician Who Changed My Life
By Stephanie Donovan: Blog Profiles: Hipster Blogs
Mica Stone: Eyes
I’ve decided to write my way just as I must grieve my way. They’re both pretty messy. I’m writing back and forth on projects in three genres but the words are coming out and right now that’s all that matters to me. Forcing myself to stick to one idea hamstrings me as much as trying not to cry when grief punches me out of the blue. So many memories are doing that lately. I love them. I laugh about them. I hate them. I never want to think of them again. I can’t stand the idea of forgetting a single moment of our life. I want to move on. I want to stay put.

Mostly I want to go back.
By Gary Price: LOD: New Interactive Maps of University of British Columbia Library’s Open Collections Use Linked Open Data

Scandalicious Book Reviews: New Release Shelf For The Week Ending March 9, 2018
By Hometalk Hits: 25 Fun Things You’ll Want to DIY Before the Spring Arrives
By Nancy MacDonald Wallace: Birdbath Water Garden
Courtesy of the website:
From Genesis: “And God promised men that good and obedient wives would be
found in all corners of the earth.”

Then he made the earth round… and He laughed and laughed and laughed!







FYI March 04, 2018



On This Day

1933 – The Parliament of Austria is suspended because of a quibble over procedure – Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss initiates an authoritarian rule by decree.
The “self-elimination of Parliament” (German: Selbstausschaltung des Parlaments) was an event that occurred in Austria on March 4, 1933, when all three presidents of the National Council resigned after irregularities occurred during a session concerning a strike by the railway workers.[1][2] The then Chancellor of Austria Engelbert Dollfuss from the Christian Social party, which was dissolved and succeeded by the Fatherland Front on May 20, 1933, seized the opportunity to create an authoritarian government.


Born On This Day

1871 – Boris Galerkin, Russian mathematician and engineer (d. 1945)
Boris Grigoryevich Galerkin (Russian: Бори́с Григо́рьевич Галёркин, surname more accurately romanized as Galyorkin; 4 March [O.S. 20 February] 1871 – 12 July 1945), born in Polotsk, Vitebsk Governorate, Russian Empire, was a Soviet mathematician and an engineer.

Mathematical contributions
Galerkins name is forever attached to the finite element method, which is a way to numerically solve partial differential equations

Galerkin methods include:
The Galerkin method – A method for approximating the solution to a problem in weak form. Most well known in the finite element method.
The Petrov–Galerkin method
The Streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin method (SUPG)
The Discontinuous Galerkin method




By William Hughes: R.I.P. M*A*S*H star David Ogden Stiers

David Ogden Stiers (October 31, 1942 – March 3, 2018) was an American actor, voice actor and musician, noted for his role on the television series M*A*S*H as Major Charles Emerson Winchester III and the supernatural fiction drama The Dead Zone as Reverend Gene Purdy. He appeared prominently in the 1980s in the role of District Attorney Michael Reston in several Perry Mason TV movies and voiced Cogsworth in the 1991 film Beauty and the Beast.
Read more on wiki:
By Chris Thompson: Fiorentina Captain Davide Astori Dies Suddenly At 31
By Dennis Young: Roger Bannister, The First Man To Run A Sub-4:00 Mile, Is Dead

Sir Roger Gilbert Bannister, CH, CBE (23 March 1929 – 3 March 2018) was a British middle-distance athlete, doctor and academic, who ran the first sub-four-minute mile.

In the 1952 Olympics in Helsinki, Bannister set a British record in the 1500 metres and finished fourth. This strengthened his resolve to be the first 4-minute miler. He achieved this feat on 6 May 1954 at Iffley Road track in Oxford, with Chris Chataway and Chris Brasher providing the pacing. When the announcer, Norris McWhirter, declared “The time was three…”, the cheers of the crowd drowned out Bannister’s exact time, which was 3 minutes 59.4 seconds. Bannister’s record lasted just 46 days. He had reached this record with minimal training, while practising as a junior doctor.

Bannister went on to become a distinguished neurologist and Master of Pembroke College, Oxford, before retiring in 1993. When asked whether the 4-minute mile was his proudest achievement, he said he felt prouder of his contribution to academic medicine through research into the responses of the nervous system. Bannister was patron of the MSA Trust. He was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease in 2011.[2]

Read more on wiki:
By Andrew P. Collins: Look Before You Leap
By Bradley Brownell: You Could Win A Racecar And Fund A Cancer Charity At The Same Time
Mazda is giving you an opportunity to win a brand new MX-5 Cup race car, and it’s all for the support of the Lemons of Love charity, which works to brighten the day of cancer patients everywhere.
By Bradley Brownell: A Truck Hauling Exotic Cars Crashed Into A Different Low-Ass Bridge


By Kris Gage: Not Everyone Deserves Your Love, You can only give so much
By Natalie Swaby: King County program doubled graduation rates for youth in foster care
By John Bowden: Philando Castile charity pays off entire school district’s student lunch debt
By Julien K., Hometalk Team Hometalker Fairfield, CT: Fix Burnt Grass & Dog Urine Spots With This Easy Solution!
By Hometalk Highlights: 11 No-Scrub Ways to Clean Your Washer and Dryer
By Jean-Sébastien: Inuit Style Mittens





By NateT: Rainbow Ice Cream



Limecello -> Happy Women’s History Month! (aka SWHM at ALBTALBS)

Hi friends! As you probably know, March is Women’s History Month, and here at A Little Bit Tart, A Little Bit Sweet, we always try to give a nod to the Smithsonian Heritage Months. You probably also know that it’s low key or not depending on how interested people are in participating in any given month. That’s all there is to it. Of course if you ever have suggestions of people or you yourself would like to guest post (please!) – do let me know!
Read complete article -> Happy Women’s History Month! (aka SWHM at ALBTALBS)

Maria Popova’s Brain Pickings -> Against Busyness and Surfaces: Emerson on Living with Presence and Authenticity

On cultivating “the power to swell the moment from the resources of our own heart until it supersedes sun & moon & solar system in its expanding immensity.”

Read complete article-> Against Busyness and Surfaces: Emerson on Living with Presence and Authenticity