Category: FYI


FYI January 13, 2019

On This Day

1435 – Sicut Dudum, forbidding the enslavement of the Guanche natives in Canary Islands by the Spanish, is promulgated by Pope Eugene IV.
Sicut dudum (English: Just as Long Ago) is a papal bull promulgated by Pope Eugene IV in Florence on January 13, 1435, which forbade the enslavement of local natives in the Canary Islands who had converted or were converting to Christianity. Sicut dudum was meant to reinforce Creator omnium, issued the previous year, condemning Portuguese slave raids in the Canary Islands. Over forty years after Creator omnium and Sicut dudum, Pope Sixtus IV found it necessary to repeat the prohibition in his papal bull Regimini gregis, which threatened the excommunication of all captains or pirates who enslaved Christians.


Born On This Day

1810 – Ernestine Rose, American suffragist, abolitionist, and freethinker (d. 1892)[2]
Ernestine Louise Rose (January 13, 1810 – August 4, 1892)[1] was a Jewish suffragist, abolitionist, and freethinker. Her career spanned from the 1830s to the 1870s, making her a contemporary to the much more widely celebrated suffragists Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. Largely forgotten in contemporary discussions of the American women’s rights movement, she was one of its major intellectual forces in nineteenth-century America.[2] Her relationship with Judaism is a debated motivation for her advocacy.[3] In 1996, she was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame.[4]




USA Today: Shirley Boone, wife of Pat Boone and philanthropist, dies
Judith Rich Harris: 1938 – 2018

Judith Rich Harris (February 10, 1938 – December 29, 2018) was an American psychology researcher and the author of The Nurture Assumption, a book criticizing the belief that parents are the most important factor in child development, and presenting evidence which contradicts that belief.[1]

Harris was a resident of Middletown Township, New Jersey.[2]

CBS News: Carole King and her “Beautiful” life
By Rob Picheta: DNA pioneer stripped of honors over ‘reprehensible’ race comments
By Courtney Krieder: Wife of two-time Purple Heart veteran, waiting for his return after he was found in L.A.
WATCH LIVE: Chico police address possible mass overdose incident
By Christopher Carbone: Walmart bans woman who rode cart while drinking wine from Pringles can

Maria Popova’s Brain Pickings: Neil Gaiman reads Ursula K. Le Guin’s ode to timeless to his 100-year-old cousin, “Dracula” author Bram Stoker’s love letter to Walt Whitman, and more
Kings River Life Magazine: “Best Books of 2018”; Look Back at Valley Theatre in 2018; Jasper, the Little Cairn That Can; Feral Paws Rescue: Mr. Mann; You Are the Top! My Best From 2018; Mystery Reading For the New Year!; Tandem Demise By Duffy Brown: Review/Giveaway/Guest Post; Back Stabbers By Julie Mulhern: Review/Giveaway; Up on KRL News & New Mysteryrat’s Maze Podcast Featuring Elaine Viets; An Obvious Suspect: Mystery Short Story; A Feature in Fresno
Paranormal Romantics: SMART Goals for 2019 by Diane Burton
On January 1st, I posted about setting SMART goals: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Timely.

In the comments here and on my post for Insecure WritersSupport Group, several people mentioned breaking down big projects into smaller more manageable goals. Mind you, sometimes parts of our goals depend on someone else. For my main goals, I have to depend on the time beta readers, my editor, and cover designer can get back to me.

So, as promised in my post, I’ve written out my SMART goals for this year.
Atlas Obscura: You can spend the night in this formerly abandoned Scottish village; Wondrous State Parks and more ->
Might want to think twice about teasing riders of this short bus.
Barn Finds Jay B: 1948 Dodge Power Wagon School Bus?!


By Hometalk Hits: 30 Address Signs That’ll Make Your Neighbors Stop in Admiration Say good-bye to ordinary signs and think about adding one of these beauties instead!
Maura White Hometalker Conesus, NY: Heart Shaped DIY Bath Confetti With Essential Oils – Easy DIY Valentin




Scrappy Geek: Super Bowl Snacks and Football Party Food!



FYI January 12, 2019

On This Day

1808 – The organizational meeting leading to the creation of the Wernerian Natural History Society, a former Scottish learned society, is held in Edinburgh.
The Wernerian Natural History Society (12 January 1808 – 16 April 1858), commonly abbreviated as the Wernerian Society, was a learned society interested in the broad field of natural history, and saw papers presented on various topics such as mineralogy, plants, insects, and scholarly expeditions. The Society was an offshoot of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and from its beginnings it was a rather elite organization.

The Society was named after Abraham Gottlob Werner, a German geologist who was a creator of Neptunism, a theory of superposition based on a receding primordial ocean that had deposited all the rocks in the crust.[1] At this time all rocks, including basalt, and crystalline substances were thought by some to be precipitated from solution.[2]


Born On This Day

1799 – Priscilla Susan Bury, British botanist (d. 1872)
Priscilla Susan Bury, born Falkner (12 January 1799 Liverpool – 8 March 1872 Croydon), was an English botanist and illustrator.

Daughter of a rich Liverpool merchant, she married on 4 March 1830 Edward Bury (1794-1858), a noted railway engineer. Working with amateur botanist William Roscoe (1753-1831), she published in 1831-1834 A Selection of Hexandrian Plants. She was not trained as a botanist or patronized as a professional artist. [1]The engraving was entrusted to the Londoner Robert Havell, engraver of the John James Audubon (1785-1851) plates. The book was carried out in aquatint and the 350 plant drawings painted in part by hand. The subscribers to this large folio numbered only 79, mostly from the Lancashire region, Audubon being one of them. The book was described as “one of the most effective colour-plate folios of its period” by Wilfrid Jasper Walter Blunt in his The Art of Botanical Illustration.[2]

Bury was also the author of illustrations for The Botanist of Benjamin Maund (1790-1863).[3]
The standard author abbreviation Bury is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name.[4]

Read more->




Jo Andres (May 21, 1954 – c. January 7, 2019) was an American filmmaker, choreographer and artist.


Jo Andres

By Britt Kennerly: Bright, blunt, thought-provoking: That was prolific letter writer Ira Adams
By Elizabeth Werth: How Paraplegic Motorbike Rider Nicola Dutto Made It to Dakar
By Julia Muncy – PSA: Stan Lee’s Last Animated Appearance Will Be Airing This Sunday

Gizmodo: Trove of Decapitated Skeletons in England Sparks Archaeological Mystery; Space Spektr-R, Russia’s Only Space Radio Telescope, Stops Responding to Commands and more ->
By Paola Nalvarte/TM: For the first time, Mexican government makes public apology to journalist tortured 14 years ago
Florida pardons wrongly accused Groveland Four after 70 years
Open Culture: Philip Glass Finishes His David Bowie Trilogy, Debuting His Lodger Symphony; Marie Kondo v. Tsundoku: Competing Japanese Philosophies on Whether to Keep or Discard Unread Books

The Passive Voice – This is The Best Work Keyboard, Code Name: Lise
Lit Hub Daily: Whence conspiracy fiction under a conspiracy president? 22 writers on how to read more. On the work and legacy of Eugène Delacroix, “the last great literary painter.” Sally Rooney has won the Costa Novel Award for Normal People. On the death of “The Death of” essays. Jami Attenberg on leaving New York for New Orleans in her 40s. More ->
The Old Motor: Horseless Carriage Reflexions: Five Unique Images on Snow, Ice and the Show Circuit

Great comments!
By Jay B – Gimme All Your Lovin’: 1935 Ford 3-Window Coupe

Without looking it up on YouTube or Google, all I remember is the hot women. Yeah, the car is cool, but those were the days of my youth. Everything worked and nothing hurt. I was burning the candle at both ends and had unlimited energy. Guitar licks and hot chicks, the eighties were it man. It was fun and I wouldn’t change a thing, and every girl’s crazy bout a sharp dressed man !





By Elaine Lemm: Lancashire Black Peas and Vinegar Recipe Also Known as Parched Peas.



Images January 11, 2019









FYI January 11, 2019

On This Day

532 – Nika riots in Constantinople: A quarrel between supporters of different chariot teams—the Blues and the Greens—in the Hippodrome escalates into violence.
The Nika riots (Greek: Στάσις τοῦ Νίκα Stásis toû Níka), or Nika revolt, took place against Emperor Justinian I in Constantinople over the course of a week in AD 532. They were the most violent riots in the city’s history, with nearly half of Constantinople being burned or destroyed and tens of thousands of people killed.


Born On This Day

1757 – Samuel Bentham, English engineer and architect (d. 1831)
Sir Samuel Bentham (11 January 1757 – 31 May 1831) was a noted English mechanical engineer and naval architect credited with numerous innovations, particularly related to naval architecture, including weapons. He was the only surviving sibling of philosopher Jeremy Bentham, with whom he had a close bond.




By Rhett Jones: The First Dumb Meme Accident of 2019 Is Here
By George Dvorsky: See the First Panorama of the Far Side of the Moon, Captured by China’s Chang’e 4 Lander
Today’s email was written by Whet Moser, edited by Jessanne Collins, and produced by Luiz Romero. Quartz Obsession: The vampire squid
By Ed Silverman: Louisiana proceeds with plans for a ‘Netflix’ subscription model to buy hepatitis C drugs
By Laura Hazard Owen: “Here’s what else you need to know today”: The New York Times launches a flash audio briefing and other voice stuff for Alexa
By Charles Wohlforth: Meet the gifted writer who inspired me to write this column
By Todd Haselton: Amazon and Google are going to be in every aspect of your life whether you want them to or not
By Molly Fosco: Learn All About Weed on This Epic San Francisco Tour
Why you should care
This tour is Parts Unknown meets the History Channel for marijuana.

By Sean Braswell: The Great Writers Who Suffered Greatly From Physical Ailments
Why you should care
Great art often comes from great suffering, but some artists suffer more than others.

Politico Jason Schwartz: Hannity at the border — 100 days since Khashoggi — Bezos drama — Storyful layoffs

Aeon: Medical Research A veteran returns to war through virtual reality, hoping to be rid of his PTSD; As Xenophon saw it Brilliant leader, kind horseman and friend of Socrates: Xenophon’s writings inspire a humane, practical approach to life; Psychology’s five revelations for finding your true calling and more->
Open Culture Ayun Halliday: An Animated History of Cats: How Over 10,000 Years the Cat Went from Wild Predator to Sofa Sidekick
The Rural Blog Spot: Anti-journalism feeling felt at local level; journalists need to explain their work, build good faith and find common ground, New laws make telehealth easier, will likely increase demand for rural broadband and more ->
What happens when two teenagers were asked to make a call on a rotary phone
Great comments!
By Jeff Lavery: Express Mail: Twin-Engined Postal Jeep


Our Crafty Mom: How To Make A Beautiful Epoxy Resin Desk
By Hometalk Highlights: Grab A Basket And Copy These 30 Ideas! You know those cheap bins and baskets? Use them to make your home beautiful







FYI January 10, 2019

On This Day


1946 – The United States Army Signal Corps successfully conducts Project Diana, bouncing radio waves off the Moon and receiving the reflected signals.
Project Diana, named for the Roman moon goddess Diana, was an experimental project of the US Army Signal Corps in 1946 to bounce radar signals off the Moon and receive the reflected signals.[1] This was the first experiment in radar astronomy and the first active attempt to probe another celestial body. It was the inspiration for later EME (Earth-Moon-Earth) communication techniques.

At a laboratory at Camp Evans (part of Fort Monmouth), in Wall Township, New Jersey, a large transmitter, receiver and antenna array were constructed for this purpose.[1] The transmitter, a highly modified SCR-271 radar set from World War II,[1] provided 3 kilowatts (later upgraded to 50 kilowatts) at 111.5 MHz in ​1⁄4-second pulses, applied to the antenna, a “bedspring” reflective array antenna composed of an 8×8 array of half wave dipoles and reflectors that provided 24 dB of gain. Return signals were received about 2.5 seconds later, the time required for the radio waves to make the 768,000-kilometre (477,000 mi) round-trip journey from the Earth to the Moon and back.[1] The receiver had to compensate for the Doppler shift in frequency of the reflected signal due to the Moon’s orbital motion relative to the Earth’s surface, which was different each day, so this motion had to be carefully calculated for each trial.[1] The antenna could be rotated in azimuth only, so the attempt could be made only as the moon passed through the 15 degree wide beam at moonrise and moonset, as the antenna’s elevation angle was horizontal. About 40 minutes of observation was available on each pass as the Moon transited the various lobes of the antenna pattern.

The first successful echo detection came on 10 January 1946 at 11:58am local time by John H. DeWitt and his chief scientist E. King Stodola.[2][3][4]

Project Diana marked the birth of radar astronomy later used to map Venus and other nearby planets, and was a necessary precursor to the US space program. It was the first demonstration that terrestrial radio signals could penetrate the ionosphere,[1] opening the possibility of radio communications beyond the earth for space probes and human explorers. It also established the practice of naming space projects after Roman gods, e.g., Mercury and Apollo.

The military implications of Project Diana were also profound. It provided the first clear test of the continuous wave FM Doppler radar developed during World War II by Edwin Howard Armstrong, which, by greatly increasing the signal range over the pulse radar then in use, enabled detection and tracking of potential inbound threats from intercontinental supersonic aircraft during the Cold War.[citation needed] It also demonstrated the feasibility of using the Moon as a passive reflector to transmit radio signals from one point on the Earth to the other, around the curve of the Earth. This Earth-Moon-Earth (EME) or “moonbounce” path has been used in a few communication systems. One of the first was the secret US military espionage PAMOR (Passive Moon Relay) program in 1950, which sought to eavesdrop on Soviet Russian military radio communication by picking up stray signals reflected from the Moon. The return signals were extremely faint, and the US began secret construction of the largest parabolic antenna in the world at Sugar Grove, West Virginia, until the project was abandoned in 1962 as too expensive. A more successful spinoff was the US Navy Communication Moon Relay or Operation Moonbounce communication system, which used the EME path for US military communication. In January, 1960 the system was inaugurated with a lunar relay link between Hawaii and Washington DC. Moonbounce communication was abandoned by the military with the advent of communications satellites in the early 1960s. Since then it has been used by amateur radio operators.

Today, the Project Diana site is part of the Camp Evans Historic District, InfoAge Science History Learning Center and Museum, and is maintained by the Ocean-Monmouth Amateur Radio Club.[5] The antenna array was removed earlier and is now presumably lost.

Born On This Day

1898 – Katharine Burr Blodgett, American physicist and engineer (d. 1979)
Katharine Burr Blodgett (January 10, 1898 – October 12, 1979) was an American physicist and chemist known for her work on surface chemistry, in particular her invention of “invisible” or nonreflective glass while working at General Electric. She was the first woman to be awarded a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Cambridge, in 1926.[2]

Birth and childhood
Blodgett was born on January 10, 1898 in Schenectady, New York. She was the second child of Katharine Buchanan (Burr) and George Bedington Blodgett. Her father was a patent attorney at General Electric where he headed that department. He was shot and killed in his home by a burglar just before she was born. GE offered a $5,000 reward for the arrest and conviction of the killer,[3] but the suspected killer hanged himself in his jail cell in Salem, New York.[4] Her mother was financially secure after her husband’s death,[citation needed] and she moved to New York City with Katharine and her son George Jr. shortly after Katharine’s birth.

In 1901, Katherine’s mother moved the family to France so that the children would be bilingual. They lived there for several years, returned to New York for a year, during which time Katherine attended school in Saranac Lake, then spent time traveling through Germany.[5] In 1912, Blodgett returned to New York City with her family and attended New York City’s Rayson School.

Blodgett’s early childhood was split between New York and Europe, and she wasn’t enrolled in school until she was eight years old.[6] After attending Rayson School in New York City, she entered Bryn Mawr College on a scholarship, where she was inspired by two professors in particular: mathematician Charlotte Angas Scott and physicist James Barnes.[6]

In 1917, Irving Langmuir, a former colleague of her father and future Nobel Prize laureate, took Katherine on a tour of General Electric (GE)’s research laboratories. He offered her a research position at GE if she first completed higher education, so she enrolled in a master’s degree program at the University of Chicago after receiving her bachelor’s degree.[6]

At the University of Chicago she studied gas adsorption with Harvey B. Lemon,[6] researching the chemical structure of gas masks.[5] She graduated in 1918 and took a research scientist position working with Langmuir. After six years at the company, Blodgett decided to pursue a doctoral degree with hopes of advancing further within GE. Langmuir arranged for her to study physics at Cambridge’s Cavendish University, persuading somewhat reluctant Cavendish administrators to offer one of their few positions to a woman.[5] She was enrolled at Newnham College, matriculating in 1924[7]. She studied with Sir Ernest Rutherford and in 1926 became the first woman to receive a PhD in physics from Cambridge University.[6]




Steve Ripley, Famed Guitarist, Producer and Band Leader of The Tractors Dies

Paul Steven Ripley (January 1, 1950 – January 3, 2019)[1] was an American recording artist, record producer, songwriter, studio engineer, guitarist, and inventor. He entered the music industry in 1977. He was also the leader/producer of country rock band The Tractors.


Eric Haydock (born Eric John Haddock; 3 February 1943 – 5 January 2019)[1] was a British musician, best known as the original bass guitarist of The Hollies from December 1962 until July 1966. He was one of the first British musicians to play a Fender Bass VI, a six-string bass.[2] Although considered a great bass guitarist, he was replaced in 1966 by Bernie Calvert, after disputes related to the conduct of the band’s managers.[3]

On 15 March 2010, Haydock along with Calvert and the other fellow Hollies members Allan Clarke, Graham Nash, Tony Hicks, Bobby Elliott, and Terry Sylvester were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.[4]

Haydock died on 5 January 2019, at the age of 75.[1]


By Mack Hogan: My Brother Isn’t Just a Dead Man
Understanding that a man so beloved was struggling deeply is hard.

Understanding that a man so beloved would want to leave it all behind borders on impossible.

But when you’re struggling with mental health, it doesn’t let up because you have a couple of laughs with friends. It’s not something that a night out can fix. And the truth is, for all the help he gave others he never got help for himself.

That’s why, three years on, we still don’t fully understand what happened. Kev had never expressed suicidal thoughts. He hadn’t been diagnosed with any illness, hadn’t spent any time in the hospital. Sure, he had sleep problems sometimes, but he didn’t really complain. He said he was doing good. His friends thought he was, too. He hadn’t had a bad week, as far as we can tell. By all accounts, he seemed like a normal college kid who liked to make people laugh. And then he was gone.
9GAG: The Actual Meaning of 11 Common Email Phrases
By Joseph Cox: I Gave a Bounty Hunter $300. Then He Located Our Phone
Goat jokes & puns?
By Rhett Jones: ‘Goat Fund Me’ Campaign Wants to Raise Money for Firefighting Goats

By Victoria Song: I Tried Really Hard to Rip These Incredibly Tough Pantyhose and Failed Miserably
By Evan Jensen: Freelance Riches? Our Spy Report On 10 Writing Websites

By Molly Fosco: She’s Breathing New Life Into Air Purification
Why you should care
Jaya Rao wants to save you from breathing toxic air.


By Matt Foley: How Football’s Fastest Man Won Olympic Gold
Why you should care
Because he was Randy Moss, before Moss.

Robert Lee “Bullet Bob” Hayes (December 20, 1942 – September 18, 2002) was an Olympic sprinter turned American football wide receiver in the National Football League for the Dallas Cowboys. An American track and field athlete, he was a two-sport stand-out in college in both track and football at Florida A&M University. He has one of the top 100 meter times by NFL players. Hayes was enshrined in the Dallas Cowboys Ring of Honor in 2001 and was selected for induction in the Pro Football Hall of Fame in January 2009. He was officially inducted in Canton, Ohio on August 8, 2009. Hayes is the second Olympic gold medalist to be inducted to the Hall of Fame, after Jim Thorpe. He currently holds the record for the fastest 4 × 100 m anchor leg of all time, as well as the world record for the 70-yard dash (with a time of 6.9 seconds). He also is tied for the world’s second fastest time in the 60-yard dash. He was once considered the world’s fastest human by virtue of his multiple world records in the 60-yard, 100-yard, 220-yard, and Olympic 100-meter dashes. Hayes is the only athlete to win both an Olympic gold medal and a Super Bowl ring.

By Christine Cube: Start the Year Writing: These 12 Residencies Provide Plenty of Space and Inspiration
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Open Culture: Bertrand Russell’s 10 Commandments for Living in a Healthy Democracy; The Art of Creating Special Effects in Silent Movies: Ingenuity Before the Age of CGI; The Hu, a New Breakthrough Band from Mongolia, Plays Heavy Metal with Traditional Folk Instruments and Throat Singing and more ->

1: Do not feel absolutely certain of anything.

2: Do not think it worthwhile to produce belief by concealing evidence, for the evidence is sure to come to light.

3: Never try to discourage thinking, for you are sure to succeed.

4: When you meet with opposition, even if it should be from your husband or your children, endeavor to overcome it by argument and not by authority, for a victory dependent upon authority is unreal and illusory.

5: Have no respect for the authority of others, for there are always contrary authorities to be found.

6: Do not use power to suppress opinions you think pernicious, for if you do the opinions will suppress you.

7: Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric.

8: Find more pleasure in intelligent dissent than in passive agreement, for, if you value intelligence as you should, the former implies a deeper agreement than the latter.

9: Be scrupulously truthful, even when truth is inconvenient, for it is more inconvenient when you try to conceal it.

10. Do not feel envious of the happiness of those who live in a fool’s paradise, for only a fool will think that it is happiness.
Bertrand Russell
The Rural Blog: USDA announces plan to fund SNAP through February; Increasing numbers of rural phone and electric co-ops provide affordable, reliable broadband and more ->


By ucn: How to Make a Realistic Faux Neon Sign – Super Bright!




By CinderellasMice: Oven-Baked “Fried” Donuts



FYI January 09, 2019

On This Day

1349 – The Jewish population of Basel, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing Black Death, is rounded up and incinerated.
The Basel massacre of Jews took place on 9 January 1349, as part of the Black Death persecutions of 1348–1350.[1]

Following the spread of the Black Death through the surrounding countryside of Savoy and subsequently Basel, the Jews were accused of having poisoned the wells, because they were perceived as having a lower mortality rate from the plague than the non-Jews.

The City Fathers of Basel attempted to protect their Jews but to no avail, and 600 Jews, including the community’s rabbi, were burned at the stake. Afterwards, 140 Jewish children were forcibly converted to Catholicism.[2]

Following the massacre, it was decreed that all Jews were banned from settling in the city of Basel for 200 years, although this was revoked several decades later.

Black Death Jewish persecutions
The Black Death persecutions and massacres were a series of violent attacks on Jewish communities blamed for an outbreak of the Black Death in Europe from 1348 to 1351.[1]

History of persecutions

Christians despised Jews for their lack of conviction in Jesus Christ. The official church policy was to protect Jews because Jesus was born into the Jewish race. But in reality Jews were targets of Christian loathing.[2] As the plague swept across Europe in the mid-14th century, annihilating nearly half the population, Jews were taken as scapegoats, likely because they were affected less than other people.[3][4] Accusations spread that Jews had caused the disease by deliberately poisoning wells.[5][6]

The first massacres directly related to the plague took place in April 1348 in Toulon, France, where the Jewish quarter was sacked, and forty Jews were murdered in their homes, then in Barcelona.[7] In 1349, massacres and persecution spread across Europe, including the Erfurt massacre (1349), the Basel massacre, massacres in Aragon, and Flanders.[8][9] 2000 Jews were burnt alive on 14 February 1349 in the “Valentine’s Day” Strasbourg massacre, where the plague had not yet affected the city. While the ashes smouldered, Christian residents of Strasbourg sifted through and collected the valuable possessions of Jews not burnt by the fires.[10][11] Many hundreds of Jewish communities were destroyed in this period. Within the 510 Jewish communities destroyed in this period, some members killed themselves to avoid the persecutions.[12] In the spring of 1349 the Jewish community in Frankfurth-am-Main was annihilated. This was followed by the destruction of Jewish communities in Mainz and Cologne. The 3000 strong Jewish population of Mainz initially defended themselves and managed to hold off the Christian attackers. But the Christians managed to overwhelm the Jewish ghetto in the end and killed all of its Jews.[10]

At Speyer, Jewish corpses were disposed in wine casks and cast into the Rhine. By the close of 1349 the worst of the pogroms had ended in Rhineland. But around this time the massacres of Jews started rising near the Hansa townships of the Baltic Coast and in Eastern Europe. By 1351 there had been 350 incidents of anti-Jewish pogroms and 60 major and 150 minor Jewish communities had been exterminated. All of this caused the eastward movement of Northern Europe’s Jewry to Poland and Russia, where they remained for the next six centuries. King Casimir of Poland enthusiastically gave refuge and protection to the Jews. The motives for this action is unclear. The king was well disposed to Jews and had a Jewish mistress. He was also interested in tapping the economic potential of the Jewry.[13]

Reasons for relative Jewish immunity
There are many possible reasons why Jews were accused to be the cause for the plague. One reason was because there was a general sense of anti-Semitism in the 14th century.[3] Jews were also isolated in the ghettos, which meant in some places that Jews were less affected.[14][15] Additionally, there are many Jewish laws that promote cleanliness: a Jew must wash his or her hands before eating bread and after using the bathroom, it was customary for Jews to bathe once a week before the Sabbath, a corpse must be washed before burial, and so on.[4]

Government responses
In many cities the civil authorities either did little to protect the Jewish communities or actually abetted the rioters.[16] Pope Clement VI (the French born Benedictine, Pierre Roger) tried to protect the Jewish communities by two papal bulls (the first on July 6, 1348 and another 26 September 1348) saying that those who blamed the plague on the Jews had been “seduced by that liar, the Devil” and urging clergy to protect the Jews. In this, Clement was aided by the researches of his personal physician Guy de Chauliac who argued from his own treatment of the infected that the Jews were not to blame.[17] Clement’s efforts were in part undone by the newly elected Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor making property of Jews killed in riots forfeit, giving local authorities a financial incentive to turn a blind eye.[18]

As the plague waned in 1350, so did the violence against Jewish communities. In 1351, the plague and the immediate persecution was over, though the background level of persecution and discrimination remained. Ziegler (1998) comments that “there was nothing unique about the massacres”.[19] 20 years after the Black Death the Brussels massacre (1370) wiped out the Belgian Jewish community.[20]

Jewish tales of Black Death in Early Modern Period

Though told for nearly 350 years, there were no written accounts of the Black Death through Jewish tales until 1696, by Yiftah Yosef ben Naftali Hirts Segal Manzpach in the Mayse Nissim. Yuzpa Shammes, as he frequently was referred to, was a scribe and shammash of the Worms community for several decades. His accounts intend to show that the Jews were not idle but that they took action against inevitably becoming the scapegoat. Despite Yuzpa’s assertion that the Jews fought against the massacres, there are contradicting accounts that claim that there was no evidence of “armed resistance”.[21] These contradicting tales display the effect of oral tradition being manipulated to fit certain circumstances.

“Ordinary folk hated the Jews because they had served the merchants and aristocrats, and with their loans and with their capital, helped establish urban economy and the city’s governing political and territorial independence. Further, the Jews had exploited artisans ‘with loans at usurious rates’.”[22] These reasons gave the “ordinary folk” the motive to kill the Jews because they were gaining political and social standings. Breuer also included that “others … saw the massacres as the revenge of impoverished debtors against privileged elite of Jewish creditors.”[23]

Born On This Day

1892 – Eva Bowring, American lawyer and politician (d. 1985)

&Eva Kelly Bowring (January 9, 1892 – January 8, 1985) was a U.S. Senator from Nebraska. Bowring was born in Nevada, Missouri. In 1928, she married Arthur Bowring. They made their home at the Bowring Ranch near Merriman in Cherry County, Nebraska.

Bowring was active in Republican politics in Nebraska. She was appointed to the United States Senate by Governor Robert B. Crosby to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Dwight Griswold, making her the first woman to represent Nebraska in the Senate. She served from April 16, 1954, to November 7, 1954. Incidentally, the fifteenth Senate term for Nebraska’s Class 2 seat, which lasted from January 3, 1949 to January 3, 1955, was unusual in that it saw six Senators serve. Bowring was the fourth of these.

After her service in the Senate, Bowring continued ranching near Merriman. She served part-time on the Board of Parole of the Department of Justice from 1956 to 1964. She died in 1985, only one day before her 93rd birthday. After her death, Bowring Ranch was donated to the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, becoming Bowring Ranch State Historical Park.


By Rich Juzwiak: Beloved Sex Educator Dr. Ruth Westheimer Is Getting Her Own Documentary
Great comments!
By Jason Torchinsky: Watch a Bollard Show a Drunk Driver in a Speeding Car Who’s Boss
By Kashmir Hill: How Cartographers for the U.S. Military Inadvertently Created a House of Horrors in South Africa
By Chris Thompson: Beefy Baseball Hero Willians Astudillo Unabashedly Admires The Hell Out Of His Handiwork
By Andrew Paul: Panopticon’s Kentucky combined folk and black metal to take on the coal industry
Originally from Memphis, Austin Lunn grew up “dirt-ass poor” not far from the site where union busters opened fire on strikers and Kopple’s film crew in Kentucky. In his twenties, he worked various day-laborer jobs as a factory lineman or sorting trash at the local dump. During off-hours Lunn wrote and performed around the Louisville area with deep-cut metal outfits like Anagnorisis and Saor, but focused most of his original work into bedroom recordings as Panopticon.
By George Dvorsky: Blue Pigment in 1,000-Year-Old Teeth Links Women to the Production of Medieval Manuscripts
The Passive Voice: The Passive Voice – Why brands need to make 2019 their most human year ever, Publishers Endanger Free Speech and more ->
Google: Have a minute? Learn something new from Women Techmakers
By Francis Reddy: Citizen scientists find new world with NASA telescope
The Rural Blogspot: Paradise Post to publish profiles of 86 killed in Camp Fire and more ->
“Normally in that case we would try to reach out to neighbors or, if the person belonged to a club or organization, fellow members,” the Post staff write. “That’s almost impossible to do when neighborhoods are wiped out, clubs and organizations are displaced and land lines no longer work. In some cases we can piece together stories based on social media profiles and messages, or internet research, but we are still searching for information on some people. If you have memories to share about someone who died in the fire, email us at”

The profiles will be published on a dedicated website; click here to visit it.
Open Culture Colin Marshall: Watch Four Daring Films by Lois Weber, “the Most Important Female Director the American Film Industry Has Known” (1913-1921)
By Christine Schmidt: Fewer nosy neighbors and data overlords: This German publisher is trying to build a hyperlocal social network
“We need to create a product of what local communities love and what provides value to them,” Alexander Drößler, a product manager at Neue Westfälische’s online service and Lokalportal liaison, said.

Yes, there are Facebook groups for this — if you don’t mind Facebook controlling your potential for interactions and your data security online. Yes, there is Nextdoor — if you don’t mind nosy neighbors sometimes racial profiling. Yes, there are comments on individual articles within a news site — if you don’t care about having a centralized conversation that’s supplemented by, not tethered to, reporting. So in 2016, Neue Westfälische decided to invest in Lokalportal, starting the process to bring the community information tool to two pilot newsrooms, with a goal to expand to the rest of Neue Westfälische’s target area — covering the 2 million residents — by the end of this year.

“We’re trying to build a hybrid between a local newspaper and a local social network,” Penthin said. “We learned hyperlocal life is more than just the exchange; it’s ‘I want to know what’s going on and perhaps I can participate in it’…We said we need a partner, we need journalists, a hyperlocal newsroom which is the driver of the community.”
Joni Deutsch, Cole Del Charco, Ju-Don Marshall and Greg Collard, WFAE, January 2019: How Charlotte’s NPR station, WFAE, fought news fatigue (and found a hit) with a music podcast
Q: What advice would you give to others who try to do this?

A: Four things:

Find gaps: Know what’s there, but more importantly what’s missing and what’s missed by other media outlets.
Talk to your community innovators: Go to lunch or coffee with them, brainstorm with them over common goals, find ways to collaborate with them.
Find ways to energize the team: What are meaningful things that can be done with this project? What are light lifts — and energizing efforts — for the individuals on your team?
Celebrate your wins: Keep track of the numbers, the audience engagements, the emails and tweets and comments and event/collaboration moments you’ve received. These moments (on their own or even on a huge list) act as a beautiful reassurance that you’re on the right track and your work means the world to your community.

Q: Anything else you want to share about this initiative?

A: Steal this idea! Seriously. This idea was sparked in West Virginia with Joni Deutsch’s award-winning 30 Days of #WVmusic podcast and continued to Charlotte as Amplifier. There is a music scene in every city, each with stories and audiences that deserve each other.
Gary Price: New Video: Watch the Film Digitization Process of the MDPI (Media Digitization and Preservation Initiative/Indiana University), New Journal Article: “Of Modems and Pixie Dust – Blockchain Demystified”, Authors Alliance Publishes 2018 Annual Report and more ->
Science News: Canadian telescope finds mysterious radio flashes from deep space, Ancient Mongolia was a good place to live-if you could survive the horse falls, Bipartisan bill on sexual harassment signals strong interest by Congress and more ->


By Hometalk Highlights: 16 Brilliant Ways to Squeeze (Much) More Into Your Closet There’s always space for more, if you’re clever about it!
Chas’ Crazy Creations: To Grandma’s House We Go Link Party 121







FYI January 08, 2019

On This Day

1454 – The papal bull Romanus Pontifex awards the Kingdom of Portugal exclusive trade and colonization rights to all of Africa south of Cape Bojador.
Romanus Pontifex, Latin for “The Roman Pontiff”,[1] is a papal bull written in 1454 by Pope Nicholas V to King Afonso V of Portugal. As a follow-up to the Dum Diversas, it confirmed to the Crown of Portugal dominion over all lands south of Cape Bojador in Africa. Along with encouraging the seizure of the lands of Saracen Turks and non-Christians, it repeated the earlier bull’s permission for the enslavement of such peoples. The bull’s primary purpose was to forbid other Christian nations from infringing the King of Portugal’s rights of trade and colonisation in these regions, particularly amid the Portuguese and Castilian competition for ascendancy over new lands discovered.[2]

This bull should not be confused with a September 21, 1451 bull by the same name, also written by Nicholas V, relieving the dukes of Austria from any potential ecclesiastical censure for permitting Jews to dwell there.[3]


Born On This Day

1037 – Su Dongpo, Chinese calligrapher and poet (d. 1101)
Su Shi (simplified Chinese: 苏轼; traditional Chinese: 蘇軾) (8 January 1037 – 24 August 1101), courtesy name Zizhan, (Chinese: 子瞻), art name Dongpo (simplified Chinese: 东坡; traditional Chinese: 東坡), was a Chinese writer, poet, painter, calligrapher, pharmacologist, gastronome, and a statesman of the Song dynasty. A major personality of the Song era, Su was an important figure in Song Dynasty politics, aligning himself with Sima Guang and others, against the New Policy party led by Wang Anshi.

Su Shi is widely regarded as one of the most accomplished figures in classical Chinese literature, having produced some of the most well-known poems, lyrics, prose, and essays. Su Shi was famed as an essayist, and his prose writings lucidly contribute to the understanding of topics such as 11th-century Chinese travel literature or detailed information on the contemporary Chinese iron industry. His poetry has a long history of popularity and influence in China, Japan, and other areas in the near vicinity and is well known in the English-speaking parts of the world through the translations by Arthur Waley, among others. In terms of the arts, Su Shi has some claim to being “the pre-eminent personality of the eleventh century.”[2] Dongpo pork, a prominent dish in Hangzhou cuisine, is named in his honor.





By Kelly Faircloth: ‘Godmother of Title IX’ Dr. Bernice Sandler Dies

Bernice Resnick Sandler, “Bunny” (March 3, 1928 – January 5, 2019)[1] was an American women’s rights activist from New York.[2][3][4] Sandler is best known for being instrumental in the creation of Title IX, a portion of the Education Amendments of 1972, in conjunction with Representatives Edith Green (D-OR) and Patsy Mink (D-HI) and Senator Birch Bayh (D-IN) in the 1970s.[5][6][7][8] She has been called “the Godmother of Title IX” by The New York Times.[9]

Sandler wrote extensively about sexual and peer harassment towards women on campus, coining the terms “gang rape” and “the chilly campus climate”.[9][2]

She received numerous awards and honors for her work on women’s rights and was inducted into the Maryland Women’s Hall of Fame in 2010, and the National Women’s Hall of Fame in 2013.[10][5] Some of her papers are currently held in the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, at the Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University.[11]

By Bradley Brownell: Buy More Miatas
By Dell Cameron: Black Market for Your Location Data Apparently Thriving Despite Privacy Vow by T-Mobile’s John Legere and Others
By George Dvorsky: Iguanas Reintroduced to the Largest Galapagos Island After Nearly 200 Year Absence
Gastro Obscura: Why Cider Means Something Completely Different in America and Europe and more ->
Forbes Daily Dozen: January 08, 2019
By Molly Fosco & Nick Fouriezos: Can He Rehabilitate Wounded Warriors With New Age Medicine?
Why you should care
Because he’s bringing a new style of medicine to an old-school organization — the U.S. military.

By Sameer Rao: New Website Maps Systems That Oppress Black Women and Girls Color of Change launched in tandem with the airing of “Surviving R. Kelly.”

By Terry Gross: Childbirth injury led a new mom to start a parenting podcast ‘To Feel Less Alone’
By Chrisitne Schmidt: Local public meetings are a scrape and a tap away, on City Bureau’s Documenters tool
Google AdSense: [Infographic] Traffic tips
CBS News: Facility CEO resigns after woman in vegetative state gives birth; new allegations emerge
Hacienda has been under intense scrutiny since the 29-year-old Native American woman had the healthy baby boy December 29, the station said. The patient has been in a vegetative state for 14 years, since a near-drowning incident, KPHO noted.
By Hannah Osborne: He Jiankui, the Chinese Scientist Who Gene-edited Babies, May Face Death Penalty, colleague says
By Teresa Mioli: ICFJ opens nominations for the 2019 Knight International Journalism Awards
The Rural Blog: Supreme Court rejects fast-track challenges to livestock-confinement laws in California and Massachusetts, Rural telecoms, groups oppose T-Mobile/Sprint merger, New app connects beekeepers and farmers and more->
By Victoria Song: Fossil’s Kate Spade Smartwatch Finally Isn’t Just Dumb Wrist Candy

By Saphora Smith: French Prime Minister says masks will be banned at protests amid ‘yellow vest’ movement Troublemakers will also be forced to pay for property damage occurring during demonstrations, instead of taxpayers.
Open Culture Josh Jones: The “David Bowie Is” Exhibition Is Now Available as an Augmented Reality Mobile App That’s Narrated by Gary Oldman: For David Bowie’s Birthday Today
Adina Mayo: 2019 Bullet Journal Set Up
By James Clear: The Surprising Benefits of Journaling One Sentence Every Day


Brittany @by Brittany Goldwyn Hometalker Frederick, MD: DIY Drawer Organizer for Spices (Organize Spices Once and for All!!)
By Charles Cranford: Giant Gee Haw Whimmy Diddle




By In The Kitchen With Matt: Sponge Cake (Only 3 Ingredients!)
By Dunning3030: Buttery Biscuits



FYI January 07, 2019

On This Day

1939 – Marguerite Perey discovers Francium, the last element first discovered in nature, rather than by synthesis.
Marguerite Catherine Perey (19 October 1909 – 13 May 1975) was a French physicist and a student of Marie Curie. In 1939, Perey discovered the element francium by purifying samples of lanthanum that contained actinium. In 1962, she was the first woman to be elected to the French Académie des Sciences, an honor denied to her mentor Curie. Perey died of cancer in 1975.[1]


Born On This Day

1906 – Bobbi Trout, American pilot (d. 2003)
Evelyn “Bobbi” Trout (January 7, 1906–January 24, 2003) was an early American aviator, notable for her pioneering flying activities. Trout began her aviation career at the age of 16; however, her first solo flight and solo certificate was only given on April 30, 1928.[1] In the spring of 1928, Trout’s mother bought her an International K-6 biplane. Trout received her pilot’s identification card from the United States Department of Commerce on September 1, 1928.[2] She was the second woman to break the non-refueling endurance record for women when she flew 12 hours straight from California in 1929.[3] The record was previously held by Viola Gentry and was the first record where Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) rules of the endurance record were revised stating that endurance records had to be broken by a full hour.[4] Trout also participated in the Women’s Air Derby of 1929, which was dubbed the Powder Puff Derby. In 2001, she was recognized as the only living participant in the first Women’s Air Derby of 1929.[5] Evelyn got her nickname “Bobbi” when she copied the hairstyle of 1928 actress Irene Castle which was a short “Bob” haircut.[6][7]



Today’s email was written by Alexandra Ossola, edited by Whet Moser, and produced by Luiz Romero. Quartz Obsession CPR: The science of stayin’ alive
The Passive Voice: 2019 in US Copyright Law and Policy; When the web started; Amazon’s ‘Bezos The Great’ Not Weeping Yet; As DIY Litigants Crowd The Docket, Courts Step In To Help; Baby, There’s a Chilling Effect Outside – Part 2
By David Tracy: Wind Is Forcing Michigan Authorities to Escort ‘High Profile’ Cars Across the Mackinac Bridge
By Ed Cara: Bristol Myers-Squibb and Others Can’t Dodge $1 Billion Lawsuit Over 1940s Syphilis Study, Judge Rules
Awww Monday ~ Woodsterman Style ~ 181 ~
By Stephanie Donovan: Blog Profiles: Financial Planning Blogs
The Rural Blog: Incoming phone calls are often dropped, rural residents say; Increasingly popular practice of pasturing livestock in woodlots could reduce producers’ carbon footprint; Emails show Florida officials delayed informing rural residents about potentially contaminated well water and more ->
By Erika Owens: January 8: Last day to apply for 50 Women Can Change the World in Journalism Program
How easy would it be to just steal/vandalize it?
By Daniel Cooper: Ring’s newest doorbell sits over your door’s peephole
GlacierHub – Newsletter 01/07/2019
By Nick Fouriezos: The Confucian Scholar Who Tamed Genghis Khan
Why you should care
Because his leadership tempered Genghis Khan and helped shape modern Chinese government.

By David Hall: How My Dog and I Started a Dog Park Riot
Open Culture: Bill Gates Book Critic Names His Top 5 Books of 2018, How a Word Enters the Dictionary: A Quick Primer, The Largest J.R.R. Tolkien Exhibit in Generations Is Coming to the U.S.: Original Drawings, Manuscripts, Maps & More  
By MessyNessy 13 Things I Found on the Internet Today (Vol. CCCXXXV): Living in a old Sea Captain’s House, Newspaper stand Berlin 1908, The Sarcastic Public art of Michael Pederson and more ->


By Hometalk Hits: 30 Essential Hacks For Cleaning Around Your Home There’s no reason to struggle cleaning your home with these handy tricks!






FYI January 06, 2019

On This Day

1721 – The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings.
The South Sea Company (officially The Governor and Company of the merchants of Great Britain, trading to the South Seas and other parts of America, and for the encouragement of fishing)[3] was a British joint-stock company founded in 1711, created as a public-private partnership to consolidate and reduce the cost of national debt. The company was also granted a monopoly to trade with South America and nearby islands, hence its name (the modern use of the term “South Seas” to refer to the entire South Pacific was unknown in England at the time). When the company was created, Britain was involved in the War of the Spanish Succession and Spain controlled South America. There was no realistic prospect that trade would take place, and the company never realised any significant profit from its monopoly. Company stock rose greatly in value as it expanded its operations dealing in government debt, peaking in 1720 before collapsing to little above its original flotation price; the economic bubble became known as the South Sea Bubble.

The Bubble Act 1720 (6 Geo I, c 18), which forbade the creation of joint-stock companies without royal charter, was promoted by the South Sea company itself before its collapse.

In Great Britain, a considerable number of people were ruined by the share collapse, and the national economy greatly reduced as a result. The founders of the scheme engaged in insider trading, using their advance knowledge of when national debt was to be consolidated to make large profits from purchasing debt in advance. Huge bribes were given to politicians to support the Acts of Parliament necessary for the scheme.[4] Company money was used to deal in its own shares, and selected individuals purchasing shares were given loans backed by those same shares to spend on purchasing more shares. The expectation of profits from trade with South America was used to encourage the public to purchase shares, but the bubble prices reached far beyond the profits of the slave trade.[5]

A parliamentary enquiry was held after the crash to discover its causes. A number of politicians were disgraced, and people found to have profited unlawfully from the company had assets confiscated proportionate to their gains (most had already been rich men and remained so). The company was restructured and continued to operate for more than a century after the Bubble. The headquarters were in Threadneedle Street at the centre of the financial district in London. At the time of these events the Bank of England also was a private company dealing in national debt, and the crash of its rival consolidated its position as banker to the British government.[6].

Read more->

Born On This Day

1795 – Anselme Payen, French chemist and academic (d. 1871)
Anselme Payen (French: [pa.jɛ̃]; 6 January 1795 – 13 May 1871) was a French chemist known for discovering the enzyme diastase, and the carbohydrate cellulose.

Payen was born in Paris. He began studying science with his father when he was 13-year-old, and later studied Chemistry at the École Polytechnique under the chemists Louis Nicolas Vauquelin and Michel Eugène Chevreul.[1]

At the age of 23, Payen became manager of a borax-refining factory, where he developed a process for synthesizing borax from soda and boric acid. Previously, all borax had been imported from the East Indies exclusively by the Dutch. Payen’s new method of synthesizing borax allowed him to sell the mineral at one third the going price, and break the Dutch monopoly.

Payen also developed processes for refining sugar, along with a way to refine starch and alcohol from potatoes, and a method for determination of nitrogen. Payen invented a decolorimeter, which dealt with the analysis, decolorization, bleaching, and crystallization of sugar.

Payen discovered the first enzyme, diastase, in 1833.[2][3] He is also known for isolating and naming the carbohydrate cellulose.[4]

In 1835, Payen became a professor at École Centrale Paris. He was later elected professor at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers. He died in Paris on May 13, 1871.


The American Chemical Society’s Cellulose and Renewable Materials Division has established an annual award in his honor, the Anselme Payen Award.[5]



By Catie Keck: Goodbye George, the Last Known Hawaiian Land Snail of Its Species
Vector’s World: Home brew, Poser, Sparring partners and more ->
Atlas Obscura: Booksellers’ Row, Obscure U.S. Mapped, Tracking Tiny Owls and more ->
Maria Popova’s Brain Pickings: Rebecca Solnit’s Lovely Letter to Children About How Books Solace, Empower, and Transform Us; Confidence Through Criticism: A Lesson in Self-Esteem from Walt Whitman and more ->
By Charu Sudan Kastur: The Indian Jurist Who Tried to Save Japan’s WWII Officials
Why you should care
Seven decades later, Pal’s legacy remains divided: Was he an apologist for Japanese war criminals, or an anti-colonial crusader?

Globally though, Pal remains largely forgotten, in part because his dissenting order spoils the celebratory mainstream narrative on most post-war tribunals, says Vardarajan. “Between those who have ignored Pal and those who have misused him,” she says, “I think he has been shafted both ways.”
By Michael Brice-Saddler: A family felt a black child’s killing was a hate crime. An arrest gave police a ‘new direction.’
By Tom Porter: Scott Dozier Death Row Prisoner Kills Himself After Execution Halted


Cari @ Everything Pretty: My Top 10 Favorite DIY Beauty Recipes
By seamster: Make an Adjustable-Height Table With a Car Jack
By HollyMann: Easy Chunky Hand-Knitted Blanket in One Hour




By marlin_maker: Biochemists Way of Baking Bread – Snuggle Up to Yeast
By attosa: Japanese Jiggly Cheesecake
By In The Kitchen With Matt: Keto Pancakes
By jprussack: How to Make Chocolate Eclairs



FYI January 05, 2019

On This Day

1066 – Edward the Confessor dies childless, sparking a succession crisis that will eventually lead to the Norman conquest of England.
Edward the Confessor[a] (Old English: Ēadƿeard Andettere [æːɑdwæɑrˠd ɑndetere]; Latin: Eduardus Confessor [ɛ.dʊˈar.dʊs kɔ̃ˈfɛs.sɔr]; c. 1003 – 5 January 1066), also known as Saint Edward the Confessor, was among the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England. Usually considered the last king of the House of Wessex, he ruled from 1042 to 1066.

The son of Æthelred the Unready and Emma of Normandy, Edward succeeded Cnut the Great’s son – and his own half brother – Harthacnut, restoring the rule of the House of Wessex after the period of Danish rule since Cnut (better known as Canute) conquered England in 1016. When Edward died in 1066, he was succeeded by Harold Godwinson, who was defeated and killed in the same year by the Normans under William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings. Edgar the Ætheling, who was of the House of Wessex, was proclaimed king after the Battle of Hastings in 1066, but never ruled and was deposed after about eight weeks.

Historians disagree about Edward’s fairly long (24-year) reign. His nickname reflects the traditional image of him as unworldly and pious. Confessor reflects his reputation as a saint who did not suffer martyrdom, as opposed to King Edward the Martyr. Some portray Edward the Confessor’s reign as leading to the disintegration of royal power in England and the advance in power of the House of Godwin, due to the infighting that began after his heirless death. Biographers Frank Barlow and Peter Rex, on the other hand, portray Edward as a successful king, one who was energetic, resourceful and sometimes ruthless; they argue that the Norman conquest shortly after his death tarnished his image.[1][2] However, Richard Mortimer argues that the return of the Godwins from exile in 1052 “meant the effective end of his exercise of power”, citing Edward’s reduced activity as implying “a withdrawal from affairs”.[3]

About a century later, in 1161, Pope Alexander III canonised the late king. Saint Edward was one of England’s national saints until King Edward III adopted Saint George as the national patron saint in about 1350. Saint Edward’s feast day is 13 October, celebrated by both the Church of England and the Catholic Church in England and Wales.


Born On This Day

1855 – King Camp Gillette, American businessman, founded the Gillette Company (d. 1932)
King Camp Gillette (January 5, 1855 – July 9, 1932) was an American businessman.[1] He invented a best selling version of the safety razor.[1] Several models were in existence before Gillette’s design. Gillette’s innovation was the thin, inexpensive, disposable blade of stamped steel.[2] Gillette is widely credited with inventing the so-called razor and blades business model, where razors are sold cheaply to increase the market for blades,[3] but in fact he only adopted this model after his competitors did.[4]





By Dave McNary: Richard Marks, ‘Apocalypse Now,’ ‘Terms of Endearment’ Editor, Dies at 75
Richard Marks (November 10, 1943 – December 31, 2018) was an American film editor with more than 30 editing credits for feature and television films dating from 1972.[1] In an extended, notable collaboration (1983–2010), he edited all of director James L. Brooks’ feature films.[2]

By MICHAEL BRESTOVANSKY Hawaii Tribune-Herald: New law bars employers from asking applicants about their salary histories
By Stephanie Farr: ‘Pete the Groin Crusher’ has crushed 10,000 patients’ groins ‘without even a sweat’
By David Brennan: Astronaut Accidentally Calls 911 from Space
By Stan Linhorst: Hotel savior Ed Riley: Leadership is about listening, learning, and teaching
By Sarah Perez: Netflix walks away from App Store payments, costing Apple up to $256m/year
One bullet.
By Ellizabeth Yuko: Manson Family Associate Bobby Beausoleil Recommended for Parole Beausoleil, 71, is serving a life sentence for the 1969 murder of Gary Hinman, a crime that came just days before the Tate-LaBianca murders.
“He’s not the same person he was in 1969,” Campbell says. “He’s a much more thoughtful and gentle and compassionate person than he was as a 20-year-old kid who murdered someone.”

Debra Tate and the California Board of Parole Hearings did not respond to request for comment.
By Associated Press: Washington Gov. Inslee to pardon thousands convicted of marijuana possession “We should not be punishing people for something that is no longer illegal,” Gov. Inslee said. Washington is one of the states that legalized pot.
The Passive Voice: Ontario’s 49th Teachers Site Supports Canadian Books in Schools, Best of Frenemies and more ->
By William Hughes: Chance The Rapper hung out with Cookie Monster, and it was unsurprisingly cute
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By Andrew P. Collins: The 2019 Dakar Rally Explained
By David Tracy: Man Puts 38-inch Off-Road Tires On a Russian Sedan Using Enormous Wheel Spacers, Rips Donuts
The Old Motor: Four Fun Friday Kodachrome Car Photographs Number 187
Open Culture Ayun Halliday: Watch the Painstaking and Nerve-Racking Process of Restoring a Drawing by Michelangelo


By Hometalk Highlights: 17 Ways You Never Thought of Using Baking Soda in Your Home