- intercalate January 19, 2020Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for January 19, 2020 is: intercalate \in-TER-kuh-layt\ verb 1 : to insert (something, such as a day) in a calendar 2 : to insert between or among existing elements or layers Examples: "The fossiliferous deposits … consist of pale pinkish-orange brown clays, brownish grey siltstones and shale, and […]Merriam-Webster
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On This Day
1886 – Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England.
Field hockey is a widely played team sport of the hockey family. The game can be played on grass, watered turf, artificial turf or synthetic field, as well as an indoor boarded surface. Each team plays with ten field players and a goalkeeper. Players commonly use sticks made out of wood, carbon fibre, fibre glass or a combination of carbon fibre and fibre glass in different quantities (with the higher carbon fibre stick being more expensive and less likely to break) to hit a round, hard, plastic hockey ball. The length of the hockey stick is based on the player’s individual height, the top of the stick usually comes to the players hip, taller players typically have taller sticks. The sticks have a round side and a flat side only the flat face of the stick is allowed to be used, if the other side is used it results in a foul. Goalies often have a different kind of stick, however they can also use an ordinary field hockey stick. The specific goal-keeping sticks have another curve at the end of the stick, this is to give them more surface area to save the ball. The uniform consists of shin guards, shoes, shorts or a skirt, a mouthguard and a jersey.
Today, the game is played globally, mainly in parts of Western Europe, South Asia, Southern Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Argentina, and parts of the United States (primarily New England and the Mid-Atlantic states).
Known simply as “hockey” in many territories, the term “field hockey” is used primarily in Canada and the United States where ice hockey is more popular. In Sweden, the term landhockey is used and to some degree also in Norway where it is governed by Norway’s Bandy Association.
During play, goal keepers are the only players who are allowed to touch the ball with any part of their body (the player’s hand is considered part of the stick if on the stick), while field players play the ball with the flat side of their stick. If the ball is touched with the rounded part of the stick, it will result in a penalty. Goal keepers also cannot play the ball with the back of their stick.
Whoever scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is tied at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout, depending on the competition’s format. There are many variations to overtime play that depend on the league and tournament play. In college play, a seven-aside overtime period consists of a 10-minute golden goal period with seven players for each team. If a tie still remains, the game enters a one-on-one competition where each team chooses 5 players to dribble from the 25-yard line down to the circle against the opposing goalie. The player has 8 seconds to score on the goalie keeping it in bounds. The play ends after a goal is scored, the ball goes out of bounds, a foul is committed (ending in either a penalty stroke or flick or the end of the one on one) or time expires. If the tie still persists more rounds are played until one team has scored.
The governing body of field hockey is the International Hockey Federation (FIH), which is called the Fédération Internationale de Hockey in French, with men and women being represented internationally in competitions including the Olympic Games, World Cup, World League, Champions Trophy and Junior World Cup, with many countries running extensive junior, senior, and masters club competitions. The FIH is also responsible for organizing the Hockey Rules Board and developing the rules for the game.
A popular variant of field hockey is indoor field hockey, which differs in a number of respects while embodying the primary principles of hockey. Indoor hockey is a 5-a-side variant, with a field which is reduced to approximately 40 m × 20 m (131 ft × 66 ft). With many of the rules remaining the same, including obstruction and feet, there are several key variations: Players may not raise the ball unless shooting on goal, players may not hit the ball (instead using pushes to transfer the ball), and the sidelines are replaced with solid barriers which the ball will rebound off. In addition, the regulation guidelines for the indoor field hockey stick require a slightly thinner, lighter stick than an outdoor stick.
Born On This Day
1853 – Marthinus Nikolaas Ras, South African farmer, soldier, and gun-maker (d. 1900)
Marthinus Nikolaas Ras (18 January 1853 – 21 February 1900) was a South African farmer, soldier, and gun-maker who is considered the father of South African Artillery.
He served in the First Boer War in the Potchefstroom commando under General Piet Cronjé. After witnessing the siege on the British fort at Potchefstroom by the Boers, he realized the need for artillery by the Boer forces to be able to successfully mount an assault the British blockhouses and forts. In the early stages of the conflict, the Boers seriously lacked cannons to enable them to assault the six British army forts in the Transvaal. In December 1880, he requested and obtained permission to return home to his farm Bokfontein, near Brits, to build a cannon for the Boer forces.
He built two cannons (named the Ras cannons), the first being a 3 inch caliber, 4½ feet barrel cannon, named “Martienie” and the second a 2 inch caliber, 5½ barrel cannon, named “Ras”. The “Martienie” cannon was used to great effect on a British fort near Rustenburg, firing 93 shots and resulting in the subsequent surrender of the fort.
On 21 February 1900 during the Second Boer War, whilst on the way back to his farm at Bokfontein, he was ambushed and killed at Kaya’s Put by an impi (African war party) of the Kgatla tribal chief Linchwe, an African tribe fighting on the side of the British.
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Why you should care
Because love, and livestock, could save your life.
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Henry Lawson, 1902
And they heard the tent-poles clatter,
And the fly in twain was torn —
Tis the soiled rag of a tatter
Of the tent where I was born.
And what matters it, I wonder?
Brick or stone or calico —
Or a bush you were born under,
When it happened long ago?
And my beds were camp beds and tramp beds and damp beds,
And my beds were dry beds on drought-stricken ground,
Hard beds and soft beds, and wide beds and narrow —
For my beds were strange beds the wide world round.
And the old hag seemed to ponder
(‘Twas my mother told me so),
And she said that I would wander
Where but few would think to go.
‘He will fly the haunts of tailors,
‘He will cross the ocean wide,
‘For his fathers, they were sailors
‘All on his good father’s side.’
Behind me, before me, Oh! my roads are stormy —
The thunder of skies and the sea’s sullen sound,
The coaster or liner, the English or foreign,
The state-room or steerage the wide world round.
And the old hag she seemed troubled
As she bent above the bed,
‘He will dream things and he’ll see things
‘To come true when he is dead.
‘He will see things all too plainly,
‘And his fellows will deride,
‘For his mothers they were gipsies
‘All on his good mother’s side.’
And my dreams are strange dreams, are day dreams, are grey dreams,
And my dreams are wild dreams, and old dreams and new;
They haunt me and daunt me with fears of the morrow —
My brothers they doubt me — but my dreams come true.
And so I was born of fathers
From where ice-bound harbours are —
Men whose strong limbs never rested
And whose blue eyes saw afar.
Till, for gold, one left the ocean,
Seeking over plain and hill;
And so I was born of mothers
Whose deep minds were never still.
I rest not, ’tis best not, the world is a wide one —
And, caged for an hour, I pace to and fro;
I see things and dree things and plan while I’m sleeping,
I wander for ever and dream as I go.
I have stood by Table Mountain,
On the Lion at Capetown,
And I watched the sunset fading
From the roads that I marked down;
And I looked out with my brothers
From the heights behind Bombay,
Gazing north and west and eastward,
Over roads I’ll tread some day.
For my ways are strange ways and new ways and old ways,
And deep ways and steep ways and high ways and low;
I’m at home and at ease on a track that I know not,
And restless and lost on a road that I know.
On This Day
1648 – England’s Long Parliament passes the “Vote of No Addresses”, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War.
The Vote of No Addresses was a measure passed on 17 January 1648 by the English Long Parliament when it broke off negotiations with King Charles I. The vote was in response to the news that Charles I was entering into an engagement with the Scots. Cromwell in particular urged that no new negotiations be opened with Charles and the vote was carried by 141 to 91. This led to the support of the general council on 8 January and a hitherto reluctant House of Lords convening a committee to approve it on 13 January.
By September 1648 the Second Civil War had been fought and the Royalists, the English Presbyterians, and their Scottish allies had been defeated by the New Model Army at Preston. The Army, now in the ascendancy, wished to resume negotiations with the king so Parliament repealed the measure in September 1648.
The Lords and Commons assembled in Parliament, after many addresses to His Majesty for the preventing and ending of this unnatural war raised by him against his Parliament and kingdom, having lately sent Four Bills to His Majesty which did contain only matter of safety and security to the Parliament and kingdom, referring the composure of all other differences to a personal treaty with His Majesty; and having received an absolute negative, do hold themselves obliged to use their utmost endeavours speedily to settle the present government in such a way as may bring the greatest security to this kingdom in the enjoyment of the laws and liberties thereof; and in order thereunto, and that the House may receive no delays nor interruptions in so great and necessary a work, they have taken these resolutions, and passed these votes, viz.:
That the Lords and Commons do declare that they will make no further addresses or applications to the King.
That no application or addresses be made to the King by any person whatsoever, without the leave of both Houses.
That the person or persons that shall make breach of this order shall incur the penalties of high treason.
That the two Houses declare they will receive no more any message from the King; and do enjoin that no person whatsoever do presume to receive or bring any message from the King to both or either of the Houses of Parliament, or to any other person.
— January 17, 1647/8. Old Parliamentary History, xvi. 489. See Great Civil War, iv. 50-53.
Born On This Day
1877 – Marie Zdeňka Baborová-Čiháková, Czech botanist and zoologist (d. 1937)
Dr. Marie Zdeňka Baborová-Čiháková (17 January 1877, Prague – 29 September 1937, Čelákovice) was the first female Czech botanist and zoologist.
Klapálek, František; Šulc, Karel; Babor, Josef Florián; Baborová-Čiháková, Marie Zdeňka; Janda, Jiří (1914). Velký illustrovaný přírodopis všech tří říší. II II (in Czech). Rašín : Ústř. naklad. a knihkup. učit. čsl. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
By Mary Otto, Association of Health Care Journalists: Reporter uncovers ‘painful mistakes’ in one state’s handling of dentist errors
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Ronald Eric Ray (born December 7, 1941) is a former United States Army officer and a recipient of the United States military’s highest decoration—the Medal of Honor—for his actions in the Vietnam War.
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“The greatest leader is not necessarily the one who does the greatest things. He is the one that gets the people to do the greatest things.”
Ronald Reagan, 40th President of the United States, and former Captain in the Army Reserves
“All of the real heroes are not storybook combat fighters either. Every single man in this Army play a vital role. Don’t ever let up. Don’t ever think that your job is unimportant. Every man has a job to do and he must do it. Every man is a vital link in the great chain.”
General George S. Patton, U.S. Army
“To get the best out of your men, they must feel that you are their real leader and must know that they can depend upon you.”
General of the Armies John J. Pershing, U.S. Army
“Because the crew was convinced that I was “on their team” there were never any issues with negative criticism… You as a mentor have to establish that you are sincerely interested in the problems of the person you are mentoring.”
Ret. Capt L. David Marquet, US Navy and author, Turn the Ship Around!
Leadership is a two-way street, loyalty up and loyalty down. Respect for one’s superiors; care for one’s crew.
Rear Admiral Grace Hopper
“The truly great leader overcomes all difficulties, and campaigns and battles are nothing but a long series of difficulties to be overcome. The lack of equipment, the lack of food, the lack of this or that are only excuses; the real leader displays his quality in his triumphs over adversity, however great it may be.”
General of the Army George C Marshall, and former Secretary of State & Secretary of Defense
“Any soldier worth his salt should be antiwar. And still there are things worth fighting for.”
General Norman Schwarzkopf, U.S. Army
“It is only those who have neither fired a shot nor heard the shrieks and groans of the wounded who cry aloud for blood, more vengeance, more desolation. War is hell.”
Major General William T. Sherman, U.S. Army