On This Day
1916 – The Migratory Bird Treaty between Canada and the United States is signed.
The Migratory Bird Treaty or Convention is an environmental treaty between Canada and the United States. It was originally signed on 16 August 1916 by the U.S. and the United Kingdom (representing Canada), entered into force in on 6 December 1916, and has since been amended several times.
Whereas, many species of birds in the course of their annual migrations traverse certain parts of the Dominion of Canada and the United States; and
Whereas, many of these species are of great value as a source of food or in destroying insects which are injurious to forests and forage plants on the public domain, as well as to agricultural crops, in both Canada and the United States, but are nevertheless in danger of extermination through lack of adequate protection during the nesting season or while on their way to and from their breeding grounds;
His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British dominions beyond the seas, Emperor of India, and the United States of America, being desirous of saving from indiscriminate slaughter and of insuring the preservation of such migratory birds as are either useful to man or are harmless, have resolved to adopt some uniform system of protection which shall effectively accomplish such objects …
This treaty led to important environmental legislation being passed in each of the two countries in order to implement the terms of the treaty.
Implementation in Canada
Main articles: Migratory Birds Convention Act and List of Migratory Bird Sanctuaries of Canada
The Migratory Birds Convention Act (also MBCA) is a Canadian law established in 1917 and significantly updated in June 1994 which contains regulations to protect migratory birds, their eggs, and their nests from hunting, trafficking and commercialization. A permit is required to engage in any of these activities. One major outcome of the act was the creation of Federal Migratory Bird Sanctuaries (MBSs).
Implementation in the United States
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Main article: Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918
Under United States Code Title 16, Chapter 7, Subchapter II, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 is the United States legislation implementing the convention between the U.S. and Great Britain (for Canada). It replaced the Weeks-McLean Act, which had become effective in 1913. The United States subsequently entered into similar agreements with four other nations (Canada, Mexico, Japan and Russia) to protect migratory birds. The statute makes it unlawful to pursue, hunt, take, capture, kill or sell birds listed therein (“migratory birds”). The statute does not discriminate between live or dead birds and also grants full protection to any bird parts including feathers, eggs and nests. Over 800 species are currently on the list.
The statute is broken down into ten sections, 703 through 712 (16 U.S.C. 703 through 712). Note that § 709 is omitted, but § 709a Authorization of appropriations is included and active, making eleven listed sections (including § 709 Omitted).
Born On This Day
1900 – Ida Browne, Australian geologist and palaeontologist (d. 1976)
Ida Alison Browne (1900–1976) was an Australian geologist and palaeontologist at the University of Sydney.
Early life and education
Ida Alison Brown was born 16 August 1900 in Paddington, Sydney, New South Wales. She was educated at Fort Street Girls’ High School, and went on to study her B.Sc. at the University of Sydney, graduating with Honours, winning the University medal in geology and the Deas Thomson scholarship in 1922.
Giving up the scholarship in 1922 at the request of Professor Edgeworth David, she worked as a demonstrator in geology and petrology at the University until 1927, and researched the minerals of Broken Hill and geology of the south coast of New South Wales. After being awarded a Linnean-Macleay Fellowship from 1927-1931 she further worked on the geology of this region, undertook extensive mapping, travelled overseas visiting research institutes and attending scientific congresses.
Brown took her D.Sc. in 1932, the second woman to do so at the University of Sydney, and then found work hard to find. She was unable to work for mining companies because women were forbidden from working underground. She again worked as a demonstrator until 1934, when she became Assistant Lecturer in palaeontology, following the illness of W.S. Dun. She spent considerable time developing her knowledge of palaeontology to the exclusion of other geological research, as well as carrying a full teaching load. Brown was promoted to full lecturer in 1940, and published a paper on the fossiliferous Silurian and Devonian sequences of the Yass district with Germaine Joplin, in 1941. She attempted to work with colleague, Dorothy Hill from the University of Queensland to publish internationally, but mainly focused on Australian publications and her teaching responsibilities. Moving from hard rock to soft rock studies, Brown’s research evolved into the study of Palaeozoic invertebrates, specifically brachiopods, as well as stratigraphical studies. Her mapping skills were praised, and her Taemas map continues to be of use. She became a Senior Lecturer in 1945, but like many women, Ida Brown resigned from teaching in 1950, with her marriage to fellow geologist and colleague, William Rowan Browne.
William and Ida Browne worked from their home residence, undertaking fieldwork when required up until 1965. She published ten papers after her marriage to Browne. She assisted him on his field trips to Kosciusko and he assisted her on field trips to Yass and other regions of New South Wales. She was a member of the Royal Society of New South Wales and Linnean Society of New South Wales, and was the first woman president of the Linnean Society in 1945. She was Vice President of the Royal Society of New South Wales from 1942–1950, Honorary Editorial Secretary from 1950–1953 and first woman President in 1953. She was a member of the Australian National Research Council, ANZAAS and Geological Society of Australia. She was a generous donor of books to the Australian Museum and University of Wollongong libraries. She also supported the creation of the William Rowan Browne medal to honour her husband’s legacy.
Browne suffered from a paralysing illness from 1970 and died 21 October 1976 in Edgecliff, New South Wales. Her husband had predeceased her the previous year.
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When I joined the A.F., I was so gun ho, I wanted to apply for an “In-flight Missile Mechanic”
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The Navy will turn out the lights and lock the doors.
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The Air Force will take out a 5 year lease with an option to buy.
Q: What’s the difference between mechanical engineers and civil engineers?
A: Mechanical engineers build weapons; civil engineers build targets.
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“Mine,” boasts another, “went down with Custer at the Battle of Little Big Horn.”
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What’d he do?” his friends wanted to know.
But he would be 165 years old.”
Float, not a seaplane.
On This Day
1281 – Mongol invasion of Japan: The Mongolian fleet of Kublai Khan is destroyed by a “divine wind” for the second time in the Battle of Kōan.
The kamikaze (Japanese: 神風) literally “divine wind” were two winds or storms that are said to have saved Japan from two Mongol fleets under Kublai Khan. These fleets attacked Japan in 1274 and again in 1281.. Due to the growth of Zen Buddhism among Samurai at the time, these were the first events where the typhoons were described as “divine wind” as much by their timing as by their force. Since Man’yōshū, the word kamikaze has been used as a Makurakotoba of waka introducing Ise Grand Shrine.
The latter fleet, composed of “more than four thousand ships bearing nearly 140,000 men” is said to have been the largest attempted naval invasion in history whose scale was only recently eclipsed in modern times by the D-Day invasion of allied forces into Normandy in 1944.
In the first invasion, the Mongols successfully conquered the Japanese settlements on Tsushima and Iki islands. When they landed on Hakata Bay, however, they met fierce resistance by the armies of samurai clans and were forced to withdraw to their bases in China. In the midst of the withdrawal, they were hit by a typhoon. Most of their ships sank and many soldiers drowned.[better source needed]
During the time period between the first and second invasion, the Japanese prudently built two-meter-high walls to protect themselves from future assaults.
Seven years later, the Mongols returned. Unable to find any suitable landing beaches due to the walls, the fleet stayed afloat for months and depleted their supplies as they searched for an area to land. After months of being exposed to the elements, the fleet was destroyed by a great typhoon, which the Japanese called “kamikaze” (divine wind). The Mongols never attacked Japan again, and more than 70,000 men were said to have been captured.
In popular Japanese myths at the time, the god Raijin was the god who turned the storms against the Mongols. Other variations say that the gods Fūjin, Ryūjin or Hachiman caused the destructive kamikaze.
The name given to the storm, kamikaze, was later used during World War II as nationalist propaganda for suicide attacks by Japanese pilots. The metaphor meant that the pilots were to be the “Divine Wind” that would again sweep the enemy from the seas. This use of kamikaze has come to be the common meaning of the word in English.
Born On This Day
1896 – Gerty Cori, Czech-American biochemist and physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1957)
Gerty Theresa Cori (née Radnitz; August 15, 1896 – October 26, 1957) was a Jewish Austro-Hungarian-American biochemist who in 1947 was the third woman—and first American woman—to win a Nobel Prize in science, and the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for her role in the discovery of glycogen metabolism.
Cori was born in Prague (then in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, now the Czech Republic). Gerty was not a nickname, but rather she was named after an Austrian warship. Growing up at a time when women were marginalized in science and allowed few educational opportunities, she gained admittance to medical school, where she met her future husband Carl Ferdinand Cori in an anatomy class; upon their graduation in 1920, they married. Because of deteriorating conditions in Europe, the couple emigrated to the United States in 1922. Gerty Cori continued her early interest in medical research, collaborating in the laboratory with Carl. She published research findings coauthored with her husband, as well as publishing singly. Unlike her husband, she had difficulty securing research positions, and the ones she obtained provided meager pay. Her husband insisted on continuing their collaboration, though he was discouraged from doing so by the institutions that employed him.
With her husband Carl and Argentine physiologist Bernardo Houssay, Gerty Cori received the Nobel Prize in 1947 for the discovery of the mechanism by which glycogen—a derivative of glucose—is broken down in muscle tissue into lactic acid and then resynthesized in the body and stored as a source of energy (known as the Cori cycle). They also identified the important catalyzing compound, the Cori ester. In 2004, both Gerty and Carl Cori were designated a National Historic Chemical Landmark in recognition of their work in clarifying carbohydrate metabolism.
In 1957, Gerty Cori died after a ten-year struggle with myelosclerosis. She remained active in the research laboratory until the end of her life. She received recognition for her achievements through multiple awards and honors.
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