On This Day
1384 – Jadwiga is crowned King of Poland, although she is a woman.
Jadwiga ([jadˈvʲiɡa]), also known as Hedwig (Hungarian: Hedvig; 1373/4 – 17 July 1399), was the first female monarch of the Kingdom of Poland, reigning from 16 October 1384 until her death. She was the youngest daughter of Louis the Great, King of Hungary and Poland, and his wife Elizabeth of Bosnia. Jadwiga was a member of the Capetian House of Anjou, but she had more close forebears among the Polish Piasts. In 1997 she was canonized by the Roman Catholic Church.
In 1375 it was planned that she would eventually marry William of Austria, and she lived in Vienna from 1378 to 1380. Jadwiga’s father is thought to have regarded her and William as his favoured successors in Hungary after the 1379 death of her eldest sister, Catherine, since the Polish nobility had that same year pledged their homage to Louis’ second daughter, Mary, and Mary’s fiancé, Sigismund of Luxemburg. However, Louis died, and in 1382, at her mother’s insistence, Mary was crowned “King of Hungary”. Sigismund of Luxemburg tried to take control of Poland, but the Polish nobility countered that they would be obedient to a daughter of King Louis only if she settled in Poland. Queen Elizabeth then chose Jadwiga to reign there, but did not send her to Kraków to be crowned. During the interregnum, Siemowit IV, Duke of Masovia, became a candidate for the Polish throne. The nobility of Greater Poland favored him and proposed that he marry Jadwiga. However, Lesser Poland’s nobility opposed him and persuaded Queen Elizabeth to send Jadwiga to Poland.
Jadwiga was crowned “king” in Poland’s capital, Kraków, on 16 October 1384. Her coronation either reflected the Polish nobility’s opposition to her intended husband, William, becoming king without further negotiation, or simply emphasized her status as queen regnant. With her mother’s consent, Jadwiga’s advisors opened negotiations with Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, who was still a pagan, concerning his potential marriage to Jadwiga. Jogaila signed the Union of Krewo, pledging to convert to Roman Catholicism and to promote his pagan subjects’ conversion. Meanwhile William hastened to Kraków, hoping to marry his childhood fiancée Jadwiga, but in late August 1385 the Polish nobles expelled him. Jogaila, who took the baptismal name Władysław, married Jadwiga on 15 February 1386. Legend says that she had agreed to marrying him only after lengthy prayer, seeking divine inspiration.
Jogaila, now in Polish styled Władysław Jagiełło, was crowned King of Poland on 4 March 1386. As Jadwiga’s co-ruler, Jagiełło worked closely with his wife. After rebellious nobles of the Kingdom of Hungary-Croatia had imprisoned her mother and sister, she marched into the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia, which had been under Hungarian rule, and persuaded most of the inhabitants to become subjects of the Polish Crown. She mediated between her husband’s quarreling kin, and between Poland and the Teutonic Knights. After her sister Mary died in 1395, Jadwiga and Jagiełło laid claim to Hungary against the widowed Sigismund of Luxemburg, but the Hungarian lords failed to support them.
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Born On This Day
1908 – Olivia Coolidge, English-American author and educator (d. 2006)
Margaret Olivia Ensor Coolidge (October 16, 1908 − December 10, 2006) was a British-born American writer and educator. She published 27 books, many for young adults, including The Greek Myths (1949), her debut; The Trojan War (1952); Legends of the North (1951); Makers of the Red Revolution (1963); Men of Athens, one runner-up for the 1963 Newbery Medal; Lives of Famous Romans (1965); and biographies of Eugene O’Neill, Winston Churchill, Edith Wharton, Gandhi, and Tom Paine. Olivia Coolidge was born in London to Sir Robert Ensor, a journalist and historian. She earned a degree in Classics and Philosophy at Somerville College, Oxford, in 1931 and a Master’s degree in 1940. In Germany, England and the U.S. she taught Greek, Latin, and English. In 1946 she married Archibald C. Coolidge of Connecticut, who had four children. 
By Harry McCracken: Paul Allen, 1953-2018: Microsoft’s cofounder and so much more He left Microsoft during its initial rise, then spent the next 35 years spending his billions of dollars in deeply personal ways.
Paul Gardner Allen (January 21, 1953 – October 15, 2018) was an American business magnate, investor and philanthropist. He co-founded the technology company Microsoft alongside Bill Gates in 1975. In March 2018, he was estimated to be the 44th-richest person in the world, with an estimated net worth of $21.7 billion, revised at the time of his death to $20.3 billion. In January 2014 he still owned 100 million Microsoft shares.
Allen was the founder and Chairman of Vulcan Inc., which managed his various business and philanthropic efforts. He had a multibillion-dollar investment portfolio including technology and media companies, scientific research, real estate holdings, private spaceflight ventures, and stakes in other companies. He owned two professional sports teams: the Seattle Seahawks of the National Football League and the Portland Trail Blazers of the National Basketball Association, and was part-owner of the Seattle Sounders FC, which joined Major League Soccer in 2009.
Allen was the founder of the Allen Institute for Brain Science, Institute for Artificial Intelligence, Institute for Cell Science, and Stratolaunch Systems. He gave more than $2 billion to causes such as education, wildlife and environmental conservation, the arts, healthcare, community services, and more. He received numerous awards and honors in several different professions, and was listed amongst the Time 100 Most Influential People in The World in 2007 and 2008.
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As you know, from reading HOW TO BE INVISIBLE, I do not answer the door unless it is someone I am expecting. However, many burglaries are in the daytime, when everyone is away from home. The burglar may ring the bell or knock twice. If no answer, he may think that no one is at home. Remedies:
1. A sign that says DAY SLEEPER–DO NOT KNOCK!
2. A sign that says, KNOCK ALL YOU WANT. WE NEVER ANSWER THE DOOR.
3. Get a cheap radio at a yard sale (I paid $2 for each of mine, one in front and one in back.), Tune it to a talk station and leave it near the door. Just loud enough so it can be heard
I also have a big sign in a window at the back of my home:
EVER WONDER IF THERE IS LIFE AFTER DEATH?
BREAK INTO THIS HOME AND FIND OUT!
If you have any other ideas about signs, let me know.
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