On This Day
1913 – The Armory Show opens in New York City, displaying works of artists who are to become some of the most influential painters of the early 20th century.
The Armory Show, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, was a show organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors in 1913. It was the first large exhibition of modern art in America, as well as one of the many exhibitions that have been held in the vast spaces of U.S. National Guard armories.
The three-city exhibition started in New York City’s 69th Regiment Armory, on Lexington Avenue between 25th and 26th Streets, from February 17 until March 15, 1913. The exhibition went on to show at the Art Institute of Chicago and then to The Copley Society of Art in Boston, where, due to a lack of space, all the work by American artists was removed.
The show became an important event in the history of American art, introducing astonished Americans, who were accustomed to realistic art, to the experimental styles of the European avant garde, including Fauvism, Cubism, and Futurism. The show served as a catalyst for American artists, who became more independent and created their own “artistic language.”
The origins of the show lie in the emergence of progressive groups and independent exhibitions in the early 20th century (with significant French precedents), which challenged the aesthetic ideals, exclusionary policies, and authority of the National Academy of Design, while expanding exhibition and sales opportunities, enhancing public knowledge, and enlarging audiences for contemporary art.
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Born On This Day
1881 – Mary Carson Breckinridge, American nurse-midwife, founded Frontier Nursing Service (d. 1965)
Mary Carson Breckinridge (February 17, 1881 – May 16, 1965) was an American nurse-midwife and the founder of the Frontier Nursing Service.
Family and early life
Born in Memphis, Tennessee, into a prominent family, Breckinridge was a daughter of Arkansas Congressman, US Minister to Russia Clifton Rodes Breckinridge and a granddaughter of Vice President John C. Breckinridge. She was educated by private tutors in Washington, D.C., Switzerland and in St. Petersburg, Russia. She obtained a degree from St Lukes Hospital New York in Nursing in 1910 and advanced Midwife Training at a Hospital in London, England.
In 1894, Breckinridge and her family moved to Russia when President Grover Cleveland appointed her father to serve as the U.S. minister to that country. They returned to the United States in 1897.
Breckinridge’s mother disapproved of her cousin Sophonisba Breckinridge’s going to college and starting a career. She helped to ensure that her daughter followed a more traditional path. Breckinridge was married in 1904 to a lawyer, Henry Ruffner Morrison, of Hot Springs, Arkansas. He died only two years later; the couple had no children.
As a young widow, Breckinridge entered a nursing class at New York City’s St. Luke’s Hospital. She remained there three years, taking a degree in nursing in 1910 before returning to the South.
In 1912 she married Richard Ryan Thompson, a Kentucky native who was serving as the president of Crescent College and Conservatory in Eureka Springs, Arkansas. The couple had two children. Their daughter Polly was born prematurely in 1916 and did not survive. Two years later, their beloved four-year-old son, Clifford Breckinridge (“Breckie”) Thompson, died of appendicitis. Breckinridge’s husband was unfaithful; they were divorced in 1920 and Breckinridge resumed the use of her maiden name
Breckinridge turned to nursing to overcome the travails of her children’s deaths and her divorce, joining the American Committee for Devastated France. It was during this time that she served as volunteer director of Child Hygiene and District Nursing. While in Europe she met French and British nurse-midwives and realized that people with similar training could meet the health care needs of rural America’s mothers and babies. Breckinridge travelled to the Hebrides, Scotland, in 1924 to look at models of health service in remote rural areas. Breckinridge also recognized that the organizational structure of decentralized outposts in France could be mimicked in other rural areas. She would implement these ideas in her later work with the Frontier Nursing Service. A deeply religious woman, Breckinridge considered this path to be her life’s calling.
Since no midwifery course was then offered in the United States, Breckinridge returned to England to receive the training she needed at the British Hospital for Mothers and Babies. She was then certified by the Central Midwives Board. She returned to the U.S. in 1925 and on May 28 of that year founded the Kentucky Committee for Mothers and Babies, which soon became the Frontier Nursing Service. She was joined by two midwives she met in London, Edna Rockstroh (1899-1982) and Freda Caffin.
Mary Breckinridge, her father Colonel Breckinridge (took care of the horses), nurses Edna, Freda set up the first nurses clinic and lived together in Hyden in 1925. They delivered the first baby in September 1925. The nurses traveled by horseback to deliver babies day and night, in all weather. There are actual recordings of Edna’s memories of the difficulties frontier nursing and the leadership of Mary Breckinridge online at Kentuckyoralhistory.org. She worked closely with Ann MacKinnon in setting up the Kentucky State Association of Midwives in 1930.
Breckinridge had a large log house, called the Big House, built in Wendover, Kentucky to serve as her home and the Frontier Nursing Service headquarters. In 1939 she started her own midwifery school. There, Breckinridge conducted Sunday afternoon services using the Episcopal prayer book. In 1952 she completed her memoir “Wide Neighborhoods” which is still available from the University of Kentucky Press.
She continued to lead the Frontier Nursing Service until her death on May 16, 1965, at Wendover.
In 1995, Mary Breckinridge was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame.
In 1998, she was honored by the United States Postal Service with a 77¢ Great Americans series postage stamp.
Marvin Breckinridge Patterson
The Forgotten Frontier
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What to Do When Something Someone Says Gets Under Your Skin
Some words or small collections of them can lift you up for minutes, hours or sometimes even days.
Other words can poke and stab and quickly tear you down.
These are the words that really get under your skin and hurt you.
What can you do when that happens?
Well, let me share what has worked for me.
Let it out.
The first thing I often do after I notice that something did actually get under my skin is to talk it over with someone close to me.
By just letting it out and venting you can release a lot of inner tension and the two of you can find a more helpful and healthier perspective on what has gotten under your skin.
Ask yourself: is the person having a bad day or year?
When my self-esteem was lower than it is today then I used to think that pretty much all the negative things people said to me was in some way my fault.
However, that is often not the case.
People can verbally attack you or nag or criticize harshly because they may have had an awful day or week. Or simply because they do not like their lives very much at all.
So don’t think this is all about you. There are two of you in this situation.
Ask yourself: could there be something here that could help me?
This question is not always fun to ask yourself. And it doesn’t always lead anywhere at all. But after you have calmed down by using the steps above it can be helpful.
Especially if this is the fifth or tenth time you have heard the same thing from people.
Then there might be something here you would like to work on and something valuable in the long run.
So at least take a minute or two to think about it.
Take care and have a self-kind Sunday!
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